Scarce Education Segregated South African American Signed Book Jones + Extras • £310.61 (2024)

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Seller: memorabilia111 ✉️ (812) 97.3%, Location: Ann Arbor, Michigan, US, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 176354494205 SCARCE EDUCATION SEGREGATED SOUTH AFRICAN AMERICAN SIGNED BOOK JONES + EXTRAS. Author...... Day, Beth Title....... The Little Professor of Piney Woods: The Story of Professor Laurence Jones Publisher... New York: Julian Messner, 1967. Eighth printing. Softcover. Signed by Professor Jones "To , In the joy of spraying a Human orchard. Laurence C. Jones, Piney Woods School, Piney Woods, Miss., 1971." Eighteen photos. Laid in is a copy of the program for TV's "This is Your Life" honoring Professor Jones, bringing in more than $776,000 for Piney Woods School. Good. Spine issues (see pics) Laurence Clifton Jones, was the founder and long-time president of Piney Woods Country Life School in Rankin County, Mississippi. A noted educational innovator, Jones spent his adult life supporting the educational advancement of rural African-American students in the segregated South. Published simultaneously in the United States and Canada by Julian Messner, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1 West 39 Street, New York, N.Y. 10018 All rights reserved. Copyright, ©, 1955 by Beth Day Eighth Printing, 1967 Photographs by Hiatt Photo Service, Hughes Photo-Studies, Mitchell Studio, Claude W. Phifer, Standard Photo Co. Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 55-10543 This is the story of Profes- sir Laurence Jones whose courage and invincible faith created a miracle of hope and education for the forgotten Negro com- munities of Mississippi. It is the story of a modern Booker T, Washington and of the Piney Woods Country Life School! which he created against tremendous odds, Here is what reviewers said about this inspiring book: "The story of one of the most remarkable Americans of our time Laurence C. Jones, Negro educator, whose almost miraculous accomplishments at Piney Woods, Miss., have earned for him recognition throughout the United States,"-Chicago Tribune "The magnificent story, told with moving eloquence, of a little Negro professor who had a glory in his vision that transfigured a whole section of the South."-Christian Herald "It is an epic story of faith in common humanity."-St. Louis Post Dispatch UR LIFE This Is a Life Applauded by $600,000 lECENTLY when Dr. Laurence C. Jones, the "little professor of Piney Woods," spoke to the Rotary Club of Hollywood, California, he gave generous credit for his work to Rotary, He told how an article first published in The Rotarian (October, 1945) started a widening interest in the trade school for Negro students which he had started near Jackson, Mississippi. What Dr. Jones did not know was that Hollywood Rotarians were secretly working with the producers of This Is Your Life, a U. S. coast-to-coast television program. The Rotarians entertained Dr. Jones for two days and took him to the studio without his guessing what was to come, There Dr. Jones met Ralph Edwards, who had brought together (as you see in the photo above) many of the friends and contributors to Piney Woods Country Life School. When Mr. Edwards suggested that viewers send a dollar each to the school, some $000,000 poured Into Piney Woods. It seemed a fit tribute to the benign little professor who has lived his useful life "praying an if it was all up to God, and working as if it was all up to me. This page reprinted from THE ROTARiAN Magazine for March 1955 Laurence Clifton Jones (November 21, 1882 – July 13, 1975),[1] was the founder and long-time president of Piney Woods Country Life School in Rankin County, Mississippi.[2] A noted educational innovator, Jones spent his adult life supporting the educational advancement of rural African-American students in the segregated South. Early life Laurence C. Jones (1955) Photo by Carl Van Vechten Jones came from a family of educators, with an uncle who founded the Woodstock Manual Labor Institute in Woodstock, Michigan in 1846.[3] Before he was married to her, his future wife was the founder of the Grace M. Allen Industrial School for African American students in Burlington, Iowa. After graduating from the University of Iowa in 1908 Jones turned down an offer to teach at the prestigious Tuskegee Institute in Alabama,[4] instead opting to teach at the small Utica Institute, a school for African American children located in Utica, Mississippi. While he was there he was recruited by the congregation of St. John's Baptist Church of D'Lo, Mississippi to found a school. The efforts of the church to start a school for their children had been initially checked by white residents of the area. Founding Piney Woods It was when he learned about rural Rankin County, Mississippi, which had an eighty percent illiteracy rate, that Jones identified his personal mission.[5] In 1909 Jones agreed to teach a poor youngster to read, and soon found himself teaching a small group of students. He started the Piney Woods School with just $2 and three students.[6] A local freed slave named Ed Taylor gave Jones 40 acres (160,000 m2) and an abandoned sheep shed to start his Piney Woods School. After marrying Grace Morris Allen in 1912, Jones built a larger school to accommodate the large number of students interested in attending.[7] A local white sawmill owner donated the wood for that building, and dozens of other donations arrived, including cattle for milk, a large amount of land near the school, and cash.[8] Throughout the rest of her life, Grace was pivotal in helping her husband fund-raise for the school, and by teaching courses in domestic science.[6] In his popular book How to Stop Worrying and Start Living, author and motivator Dale Carnegie told a story of how Jones had survived a near-lynching in 1918 by demonstrating to the white mob how passionate he was about his efforts to educate African-American children.[9] Several accounts support Carnegie's account that after being persuaded not to lynch him, the crowd actually ended up collecting money to give to Jones to support his school.[8] Carnegie quoting him saying "No man can force me to stoop low enough to hate him". Methodology Jones is attributed with utilizing the "Booker T. Washington model" of training African Americans to be good workers. He followed the Jim Crow social codes of the South, and consequently his school thrived without controversy and with encouragement from white people throughout Mississippi.[10] Jones taught students about agriculture, carpentry, dairy farming and construction,[11][self-published source?] and under his guidance students were responsible for building many of the facilities on the campus, starting with a boys' dorm in 1922.[12] In 1929, with the arrival of Martha Louise Morrow Foxx to serve as principal, the Mississippi Blind School for Negroes was founded on the campus; it eventually moved to Jackson, Mississippi. With assistance from his wife Jones led several singing groups across the South, the Midwest and the East on fundraising tours. The schools' Five Blind Boys of Mississippi, the Cotton Blossom Singers and the International Sweethearts of Rhythm were three of several acts. Beginning in the 1930s, the school also sponsored baseball teams as part of the fund-raising efforts.[13] Jones appeared on the This Is Your Life television show in the 1950s, and after telling his story asked viewers to each send in $1 to support the school.[14] This bid eventually raised $700,000,[11] with which Jones began the schools' endowment fund, which was reported to be at $7,000,000 when Jones died in 1975. Recognition Jones received honorary doctorates from Clarke College, Cornell College, University of Dubuque, and Otterbein College. He also earned an honorary Master of Arts from the Tuskegee Institute.[15] He was recognized for his contributions to the education of African American children by the University of Iowa when college president Virgil Hancher named him one of the University's most outstanding alumni in 1954. Jones also sat on boards for the Mississippi Federation of Colored Women's Clubs and the state executive committee for the Y.M.C.A. He was also the author of several books, including Up Through Difficulties, published in 1910, Piney Woods and Its Story, published in 1923, and The Bottom Rail, published in 1933.[16] Jones received the Silver Buffalo Award, the highest commendation of the Boy Scouts of America, in 1970.[17] Legacy Laurence C. Jones died in 1975. His daughter, Helen, was part of the influential World War II-era and she played trombone in a swing band called the International Sweethearts of Rhythm, which was originally formed at the school.[18] His granddaughter, Cathy Hughes, still sits on the board of Piney Woods,.[19] In 2007 the U.S. Congress dedicated the Laurence C. and Grace M. Jones Post Office Building in Piney Woods, Mississippi in honor of the couples' legacy in the community.[6] The Piney Woods Country Life School (or The Piney Woods School) is a co-educational independent historically African-American boarding school for grades 9–12 in Piney Woods, unincorporated Rankin County, Mississippi. It is 21 miles (34 km) south of Jackson.[1] It is one of four remaining historically African-American boarding schools in the United States. It is currently the largest African-American boarding school, as well as being the second oldest continually operating African-American boarding school. Its campus was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2020.[2] History The Piney Woods School was founded in 1909 by Laurence C. Jones.[3] Jones added the Mississippi School of the Blind for Negroes in the early 1920s, and in 1929, with the arrival of Martha Louise Morrow Foxx serving as principal, the Mississippi Blind School for Negroes was founded at Piney Woods. The school eventually moved to an urban location in Jackson, Mississippi.[citation needed] Piney Woods was where the International Sweethearts of Rhythm were formed, by Jones, in 1937.[4] The band included jazz musician Helen Jones, the daughter of the school's founder. Other bands associated with the school included the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi and the Cotton Blossom Singers. Beginning in the 1930s the school also sponsored baseball teams as part of the fund-raising efforts.[5] The school was presided over for more than 60 years by Jones, until 1974 when Dr. James S. Wade became the second president. Charles Beady led the school for more than 20 years, and today the school is presided over by Dr. Reginald T.W. Nichols.[6] In 1954 Jones appeared on the This Is Your Life television show.[7] During the show the host asked viewers to each send in $1 to support the school,[8] eventually raising $700,000,[9] with which Jones began the schools' endowment fund, reported to be at $7,000,000 when Jones died in 1975.[citation needed] Since then the school has conducted a number of notable publicity and fundraising activities. A variety of speakers have spoken at the school, including George Washington Carver,[10] LeRoy T. Walker and Mike Espy. Wynton Marsalis played a benefit performance for the school in 1994, as well. Morley Safer reported on the school in 1992 and again in 2005 for the CBS television show, 60 Minutes.[11] Currently Today the curriculum at Piney Woods combines strict discipline, Christian teaching and chores with classroom instruction. More than 98 percent of Piney Woods' graduates go on to attend colleges, including Kings College (Pennsylvania), Emory University, University of Mississippi, Mississippi State University, Millsaps College, Clark Atlanta University, Spelman College, Morehouse College, Xavier University, Rice University, Jackson State University, Tougaloo College, Berea College, Howard University, Xavier University of Louisiana, Princeton University, the University of Chicago, University of Memphis, University of the South, Smith College, Harvard University, Vassar College, Tufts University, University of California at Los Angeles, University of Maryland, Florida A&M University, Texas Southern University, and Amherst College .[12][13][14] The Piney Woods campus is located 21 miles (34 km) southeast of Jackson, Mississippi. It sits on 2,000 acres (810 ha) of rolling hills, forest, open fields and lakes. Funded by donations and a significant endowment, the school houses 300 high school students in grades 9 through 12 from more than 20 states, Mexico, the Caribbean and several African nations. The self-sufficient campus includes a post office, a farm, athletic fields, chapel and amphitheater.[15] Notable alumni and faculty Socrates Garrett of Garrett Enterprises[16] Helen Jones Woods Grace Morris Allen Jones, wife of Laurence and pioneering African American educator Cotton Blossom Singers Five Blind Boys of Mississippi International Sweethearts of Rhythm Virgia Brocks-Shedd, librarian and poet Yvonne Busch, noted music educator M. F. K. Fisher, preeminent American food writer Noelle Roe, West Point student and now Army Captain. First African American Military Officer in the state of Colorado. Racial segregation is the systematic separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life. Racial segregation can amount to the international crime of apartheid and a crime against humanity under the 2002 Rome Declaration of Statute of the International Criminal Court. Segregation can involve the spatial separation of the races, and mandatory use of different institutions, such as schools and hospitals by people of different races. Specifically, it may be applied to activities such as eating in restaurants, drinking from water fountains, using public toilets, attending schools, going to films, riding buses, renting or purchasing homes or renting hotel rooms.[1] In addition, segregation often allows close contact between members of different racial or ethnic groups in hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work as a servant for a member of another race. Segregation is defined by the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance as "the act by which a (natural or legal) person separates other persons on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds without an objective and reasonable justification, in conformity with the proposed definition of discrimination. As a result, the voluntary act of separating oneself from other people on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds does not constitute segregation".[2] According to the UN Forum on Minority Issues, "The creation and development of classes and schools providing education in minority languages should not be considered impermissible segregation if the assignment to such classes and schools is of a voluntary nature."[3] Racial segregation has generally been outlawed worldwide. In the United States, racial segregation was mandated by law in some states (see Jim Crow laws) and enforced along with anti-miscegenation laws (prohibitions against interracial marriage), until the U.S. Supreme Court led by Chief Justice Earl Warren struck down racial segregationist laws throughout the United States.[4][5][6][7][8] However, racial segregation may exist de facto through social norms, even when there is no strong individual preference for it, as suggested by Thomas Schelling's models of segregation and subsequent work.[9] Segregation may be maintained by means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the rental and sale of housing to certain races to vigilante violence (such as lynchings). Generally, a situation that arises when members of different races mutually prefer to associate and do business with members of their own race would usually be described as separation or de facto separation of the races rather than segregation. Historic cases from ancient times to the 1960s Wherever multiracial communities have existed, racial segregation has also been practiced. Only areas with extensive interracial marriage, such as Hawaii and Brazil, seem to be exempt from it, despite some social stratification within them.[10] Imperial China Tang dynasty Several laws which enforced racial segregation of foreigners from Chinese were passed by the Han Chinese during the Tang dynasty.[citation needed] In 779, the Tang dynasty issued an edict which forced Uyghurs to wear their ethnic dress, stopped them from marrying Chinese females, and banned them from pretending to be Chinese.[11] In 836, when Lu Chun was appointed as governor of Canton, he was disgusted to find Chinese living with foreigners and intermarriage between Chinese and foreigners. Lu enforced separation, banning interracial marriages, and made it illegal for foreigners to own property. Lu Chun believed his principles were just and upright.[11] The 836 law specifically banned Chinese from forming relationships with "Dark peoples" or "People of colour", which was used to describe foreigners, such as "Iranians, Sogdians, Arabs, Indians, Malays, Sumatrans", among others.[12][13] Qing dynasty Main article: Eight Banners The Qing dynasty was founded not by Han Chinese, who form the majority of the Chinese population, but by Manchus, who are today an ethnic minority of China. The Manchus were keenly aware of their minority status, however, it was only later in the dynasty that they banned intermarriage. Han defectors played a massive role in the Qing conquest of China. Han Chinese Generals of the Ming Dynasty who defected to the Manchu were often given women from the Imperial Aisin Gioro family in marriage while the ordinary soldiers who defected were given non-royal Manchu women as wives. The Manchu leader Nurhaci married one of his granddaughters to the Ming General Li Yongfang after he surrendered Fushun in Liaoning to the Manchu in 1618.[14][15] Jurchen (Manchu) women married most of the Han Chinese defectors in Liaodong.[16] Aisin Gioro women were married to the sons of the Han Chinese Generals Sun Sike (Sun Ssu-k'o), Geng Jimao (Keng Chi-mao), Shang Kexi (Shang K'o-hsi), and Wu Sangui (Wu San-kuei).[17] A mass marriage of Han Chinese officers and officials to Manchu women numbering 1,000 couples was arranged by Prince Yoto and Hongtaiji in 1632 to promote harmony between the two ethnic groups.[14] Geng Zhongming, a Han bannerman, was awarded the title of Prince Jingnan, and his son Geng Jingmao managed to have both his sons Geng Jingzhong and Geng Zhaozhong become court attendants under Shunzhi and marry Aisin Gioro women, with Haoge's (a son of Hong Taiji) daughter marrying Geng Jingzhong and Prince Abatai's (Hong Taiji) granddaughter marrying Geng Zhaozhong.[18] The Qing differentiated between Han Bannermen and ordinary Han civilians. Han Bannermen were made out of Han Chinese who defected to the Qing up to 1644 and joined the Eight Banners, giving them social and legal privileges in addition to being acculturated to Manchu culture. So many Han defected to the Qing and swelled the ranks of the Eight Banners that ethnic Manchus became a minority within the Banners, making up only 16% in 1648, with Han Bannermen dominating at 75%.[19][20][21] It was this multi-ethnic force in which Manchus were only a minority, which conquered China for the Qing.[22] It was Han Chinese Bannermen who were responsible for the successful Qing conquest of China, they made up the majority of governors in the early Qing and were the ones who governed and administered China after the conquest, stabilizing Qing rule.[23] Han Bannermen dominated the post of governor-general in the time of the Shunzhi and Kangxi Emperors, and also the post of governors, largely excluding ordinary Han civilians from the posts.[24] To promote ethnic harmony, a 1648 decree from the Manchu Shunzhi Emperor allowed Han Chinese civilian men to marry Manchu women from the Banners with the permission of the Board of Revenue if they were registered daughters of officials or commoners or the permission of their banner company captain if they were unregistered commoners, it was only later in the dynasty that these policies allowing intermarriage were done away with.[25][26] The Qing implemented a policy of segregation between the Bannermen of the Eight Banners (Manchu Bannermen, Mongol Bannermen, Han Bannermen) and Han Chinese civilians[when?]. This ethnic segregation had cultural and economic reasons: intermarriage was forbidden to keep up the Manchu heritage and minimize sinicization. Han Chinese civilians and Mongol civilians were banned from settling in Manchuria.[27] Han civilians and Mongol civilians were banned from crossing into each other's lands. Ordinary Mongol civilians in Inner Mongolia were banned from even crossing into other Mongol Banners. (A banner in Inner Mongolia was an administrative division and not related to the Mongol Bannermen in the Eight Banners) These restrictions did not apply Han Bannermen, who were settled in Manchuria by the Qing. Han bannermen were differentiated from Han civilians by the Qing and treated differently. The Qing Dynasty started colonizing Manchuria with Han Chinese later on in the dynasty's rule, but the Manchu area was still separated from modern-day Inner Mongolia by the Outer Willow Palisade, which kept the Manchu and the Mongols in the area separate. The policy of segregation applied directly to the banner garrisons, most of which occupied a separate walled zone within the cities in which they were stationed. Manchu Bannermen, Han Bannermen, and Mongol Bannermen were separated from the Han civilian population. While the Manchus followed the governmental structure of the preceding Ming dynasty, their ethnic policy dictated that appointments were split between Manchu noblemen and Han Chinese civilian officials who had passed the highest levels of the state examinations, and because of the small number of Manchus, this insured that a large fraction of them would be government officials. Colonial societies Belgian Congo Main article: Belgian Congo § Social inequality and racial discrimination Though there were no specific laws imposing racial segregation and barring Black people from establishments frequented by Whites, de facto segregation operated in most areas. For example, initially, the city centres were reserved to the White population only, while the Black population was organised in cités indigènes (indigenous neighbourhoods called 'le belge'). Hospitals, department stores, and other facilities were often reserved for either Whites or Blacks. The Black population in the cities could not leave their houses from 21:00 to 04:00. This type of segregation began to disappear gradually only in the 1950s, but even then the Congolese remained or felt treated in many respects as second-rate citizens (for instance in political and legal terms). From 1952, and even more so after the triumphant visit of King Baudouin to the colony in 1955, Governor-General Léon Pétillon (1952–1958) worked to create a "Belgian-Congolese community", in which Black and White people were to be treated as equals.[28] Regardless, anti-miscegenation laws remained in place, and between 1959 and 1962 thousands of mixed-race Congolese children were forcibly deported from the Congo by the Belgian government and the Catholic Church and taken to Belgium.[29] French Algeria Main article: French Algeria § Discrimination See also: Indigénat and Assimilation (French colonialism) Following its conquest of Ottoman controlled Algeria in 1830, for well over a century, France maintained colonial rule in the territory which has been described as "quasi-apartheid".[30] The colonial law of 1865 allowed Arab and Berber Algerians to apply for French citizenship only if they abandoned their Muslim identity; Azzedine Haddour argues that this established "the formal structures of a political apartheid".[31] Camille Bonora-Waisman writes that "in contrast with the Moroccan and Tunisian protectorates", this "colonial apartheid society" was unique to Algeria.[32] This "internal system of apartheid" met with considerable resistance from the Muslims affected by it, and is cited as one of the causes of the 1954 insurrection and ensuing independence war.[33] Rhodesia Further information: South Rhodesia Land Apportionment Act Land apportionment in Rhodesia in 1965 The Land Apportionment Act of 1930 passed in Southern Rhodesia (now known as Zimbabwe) was a segregationist measure that governed land allocation and acquisition in rural areas, making distinctions between Blacks and Whites.[34] One highly publicised legal battle occurred in 1960 involving the opening of a new theatre that was to be open to all races; the proposed unsegregated public toilets at the newly built Reps Theatre in 1959 caused an argument called "The Battle of the Toilets". Religious and racial antisemitism Main articles: Antisemitism, History of antisemitism, Religious antisemitism, Antisemitism in Christianity, History of European Jews in the Middle Ages, History of the Jews in Europe, Jewish ghettos in Europe, Antisemitism in Islam, History of the Jews under Muslim rule, Mellah, and Racial antisemitism Jews in Europe were generally forced, by decree or by informal pressure, to live in highly segregated ghettos and shtetls.[35] In 1204, the papacy required Jews to segregate themselves from Christians and it also required them to wear distinctive clothing.[36] Forced segregation of Jews spread throughout Europe during the 14th and 15th centuries.[37] In the Russian Empire, Jews were restricted to the so-called Pale of Settlement, the Western frontier of the Russian Empire which roughly corresponds to the modern-day countries of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine.[38] By the early 20th century, the majority of Europe's Jews lived in the Pale of Settlement. From the beginning of the 15th century, Jewish populations in Morocco were confined to mellahs. In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a fortified gateway. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages whose sole inhabitants were Jews.[39] In the middle of the 19th century, J. J. Benjamin wrote about the lives of Persian Jews: …they are obliged to live in a separate part of town…; for they are considered as unclean creatures… Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity, and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt… For the same reason, they are prohibited to go out when it rains; for it is said the rain would wash dirt off them, which would sully the feet of the Mussulmans… If a Jew is recognized as such in the streets, he is subjected to the greatest insults. The passers-by spit in his face, and sometimes beat him… unmercifully… If a Jew enters a shop for anything, he is forbidden to inspect the goods… Should his hand incautiously touch the goods, he must take them at any price the seller chooses to ask for them... Sometimes the Persians intrude into the dwellings of the Jews and take possession of whatever please them. Should the owner make the least opposition in defense of his property, he incurs the danger of atoning for it with his life... If... a Jew shows himself in the street during the three days of the Katel (Muharram)…, he is sure to be murdered.[40] On 16 May 1940 in Norway, the Administrasjonsrådet asked the Rikskommisariatet why radio receivers had been confiscated from Jews in Norway.[41] That Administrasjonsrådet thereafter "quietly" accepted[41] racial segregation between Norwegian citizens, has been claimed by Tor Bomann-Larsen. Furthermore, he claimed that this segregation "created a precedent. 2 years later (with NS-styret in the ministries of Norway) Norwegian police arrested citizens at the addresses where radios had previously been confiscated from Jews.[41] Fascist Italy Main articles: Italian fascism and Italian fascism and racism In 1938, under pressure from the Nazis, the fascist regime, which was led by Benito Mussolini, passed a series of racial laws which instituted an official segregationist policy in the Italian Empire, this policy was especially directed against Italian Jews. This policy enforced various segregationist norms, like the laws which banned Jews from teaching or studying in ordinary schools and universities, banned Jews from owning industries that were reputed to be very important to the nation, banned Jews from working as journalists, banned Jews from joining the military, and banned Jews from marrying non-Jews. As an immediate consequence of the introduction of the 'provvedimenti per la difesa della razza' (norms for the defence of the race), many of the best Italian scientists quit their jobs, and some of them also left Italy. Amongst these scientists were the internationally-known physicists Emilio Segrè, Enrico Fermi (whose wife was Jewish), Bruno Pontecorvo, Bruno Rossi, Tullio Levi-Civita, mathematicians Federigo Enriques and Guido Fubini and even the fascist propaganda director, art critic and journalist Margherita Sarfatti, who was one of Mussolini's mistresses. Rita Levi-Montalcini, who would successively win the Nobel Prize for Medicine, was forbidden to work at the university. Upon the passage of the racial law, Albert Einstein cancelled his honorary membership in the Accademia dei Lincei. After 1943, when Northern Italy was occupied by the Nazis, Italian Jews were rounded up and became victims of the Holocaust. Nazi Germany Main articles: Nazism, Nazi racial theories, and Racial policy of Nazi Germany See also: Anti-Jewish legislation in pre-war Nazi Germany and Nur für Deutsche "Nur für deutsche Fahrgäste" ("Only for German passengers") on the tram number 8 in German-occupied Kraków, Poland German praise for America's system of institutional racism, which was expressed in Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf, was continuous throughout the early 1930s.[42] The U.S. was the global leader of codified racism, and its race laws fascinated the Germans.[42] The National Socialist Handbook for Law and Legislation of 1934–35, edited by Hitler's lawyer Hans Frank, contains a pivotal essay by Herbert Kier on the recommendations for race legislation which devoted a quarter of its pages to U.S. legislation—from segregation, race based citizenship, immigration regulations, and anti-miscegenation.[42] This directly inspired the two principal Nuremberg Laws—the Citizenship Law and the Blood Law.[42] The ban on interracial marriage (anti-miscegenation) prohibited sexual relations and marriages between people classified as "Aryan" and "non-Aryan". Such relationships were called Rassenschande (race defilement). At first the laws were aimed primarily at Jews but were later extended to "Gypsies, Negroes".[43][44][45] Aryans found guilty could face incarceration in a Nazi concentration camp, while non-Aryans could face the death penalty.[46] To preserve the so-called purity of the German blood, after the war began, the Nazis extended the race defilement law to include all foreigners (non-Germans).[47] Under the General Government of occupied Poland in 1940, the Nazis divided the population into different groups, each with different rights, food rations, allowed housing strips in the cities, public transportation, etc. In an effort to split the Polish people's identity, they attempted to establish ethnic divisions of Kashubians and Gorals (Goralenvolk), based on these groups' alleged "Germanic component". During the 1930s and 1940s, Jews in Nazi-controlled states were forced to wear something that identified them as Jewish, such as a yellow ribbon or a star of David, and along with Romas (Gypsies), they were subjected to discrimination by the racial laws. Jewish doctors were not allowed to treat Aryan patients and Jewish professors were not permitted to teach Aryan pupils. In addition, Jews were not allowed to use any form of public transportation, besides the ferry, and they were only allowed to shop in Jewish stores from 3–5 pm. After Kristallnacht ("The Night of Broken Glass"), the Jews were fined 1,000,000,000 ℛ︁ℳ︁ for the damage which was done by Nazi troops and SS members. Women behind the barbed wire fence of the Lwów Ghetto in occupied Poland, Spring 1942 Jews, Poles, and Roma were subjected to genocide as "undesirable" racial groups in The Holocaust. The Nazis established ghettos in order to confine Jews and sometimes, they confined Romas in tightly packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe, turning them into de facto concentration camps. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of these ghettos, with 400,000 people. The Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000.[48] Between 1939 and 1945, at least 1.5 million Polish citizens were transported to the Reich for forced labour (in all, about 12 million forced laborers were employed in the German war economy inside Nazi Germany).[49][50] Although Nazi Germany also used forced laborers from Western Europe, Poles, along with other Eastern Europeans viewed as racially inferior,[51] were subject to deeper discriminatory measures. They were forced to wear a yellow with purple border and letter "P" (for Polen/Polish) cloth identifying tag sewn to their clothing, subjected to a curfew, and banned from public transportation. While the treatment of factory workers or farm hands often varied depending on the individual employer, Polish laborers, as a rule, were compelled to work longer hours for lower wages than Western Europeans – in many cities, they were forced to live in segregated barracks behind barbed wire. Social relations with Germans outside work were forbidden, and sexual relations (Rassenschande or "racial defilement") were punishable by death.[52] Other countries Canada Main article: Racial segregation in Canada Racial segregation was widespread and deeply imbedded into the fabric of Canadian society prior to the Canadian constitution of 1982. Multiple court decisions, including one from the Supreme Court of Canada in 1939, upheld racial segregation as valid. The last black specifically segregated school closed in Ontario in 1965, while the last black specifically segregated school closed in Nova Scotia in 1983. The last racially segregated Indigenous school closed in 1996 in Saskatchewan.[53] Canada has had multiple white only neighbourhoods and cities, white only public spaces, stores, universities, hospitals, employment, restaurants, theatres, sports arenas and universities. Though the black population in Canada was significantly less than the black population in the United States, severe restrictions on black people existed in all forms, particularly in immigration, employment access and mobility. Unlike in the United States, racial segregation in Canada applied to all non-whites and was historically enforced through laws, court decisions and social norms with a closed immigration system that barred virtually all non-whites from immigrating until 1962. Section 38 of the 1910 Immigration Act permitted the government to prohibit the entry of immigrants "belonging to any race deemed unsuited to the climate or requirements of Canada, or of immigrants of any specified class, occupation or character."[53] Racial segregation practices extended to many areas of employment in Canada. Black men and women in Quebec were historically relegated to the service sector regardless of their educational attainment. White business owners and even provincial and federal government agencies often did not hire black people, with explicit rules preventing their employment. When the labour movement took hold in Canada near the end of the 19th century, workers began organizing and forming trade unions with the aim of improving the working conditions and quality of life for employees. However, black workers were systematically denied membership to these unions, and worker's protection was reserved exclusively for whites.[53] Germany In fifteenth-century north-east Germany, people of Wendish, i.e. Slavic, origin were not allowed to join some guilds.[54] According to Wilhelm Raabe, "down into the eighteenth century no German guild accepted a Wend."[55] South Africa Main article: Apartheid "Apartheid": sign on Durban beach in English, Afrikaans and Zulu, 1989 The apartheid system carried out by Afrikaner minority rule enacted a nationwide social policy "separate development" with the National Party victory in the 1948 general election, following the "colour bar"-discriminatory legislation dating back to the beginning of the Union of South Africa and the Boer republics before which, while repressive to Black South Africans along with other minorities, had not gone nearly so far. Apartheid laws can be generally divided into following acts. Firstly, the Population Registration Act in 1950 classified residents in South Africa into four racial groups: "black", "white", "Coloured", and "Indian" and noted their racial identities on their identifications. Secondly, the Group Areas Act in 1950 assigned different regions according to different races. People were forced to live in their corresponding regions and the action of passing the boundaries without a permit was made illegal, extending pass laws that had already curtailed black movement. Thirdly, under the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act in 1953, amenities in public areas, like hospitals, universities and parks, were labeled separately according to particular races. In addition, the Bantu Education Act in 1953 segregated national education in South Africa as well. Additionally, the government of the time enforced the pass laws, which deprived Black South Africans of their right to travel freely within their own country. Under this system Black South Africans were severely restricted from urban areas, requiring authorisation from a white employer to enter. Uprisings and protests against apartheid appeared immediately when apartheid arose. As early as 1949, the Youth League of the African National Congress (ANC) advocated the ending of apartheid and suggested fighting against racial segregation by various methods. During the following decades, hundreds of anti-apartheid actions occurred, including those of the Black Consciousness Movement, students' protests, labor strikes, and church group activism etc. In 1991, the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act was passed, repealing laws enforcing racial segregation, including the Group Areas Act.[56] In 1994, Nelson Mandela won in the first multiracial democratic election in South Africa. His success fulfilled the ending of apartheid in South African history. United States Main article: Racial segregation in the United States Further information: African-American history, Racism against African Americans, Racism in the United States, Slavery in the United States, Reconstruction Era, Gilded Age, Black Codes (United States), Jim Crow laws, Nadir of American race relations, Progressive Era, 1920s in the United States, 1930s in the United States, 1940s in the United States, 1950s in the United States, 1960s in the United States, 1970s in the United States, 1960s counterculture, and Civil rights movement After the passage of Jim Crow laws which segregated African Americans and Whites, the people who were negatively affected by those laws saw no progress in their quest for equality.[57] Racial segregation was not a new phenomenon, as illustrated by the fact that almost four million Blacks had been enslaved before the Civil War.[58][59] The laws which were passed segregated African Americans from Whites in order to enforce a system of white supremacy. Signs were used to show non Whites where they could legally walk, talk, drink, rest, or eat.[59] For those places that were racially mixed, Blacks had to wait until all White customers were dealt with.[59] Rules were also enforced that restricted African Americans from entering white stores.[59] Segregated facilities extended from white only schools to white-only graveyards.[60] After the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery in America, racial discrimination became regulated by the so-called Jim Crow laws, which mandated strict segregation of the races. Though many of these laws were passed shortly after the Civil War ended, they only became formalized after the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. The period that followed the Reconstruction era is known as the nadir of American race relations. The legislation (or in some states, such as Florida, the state constitutions) that mandated segregation lasted at least until a 1968 ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court outlawed all forms of segregation. Colored Sailors room in World War I While the U.S. Supreme Court majority in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson case explicitly permitted "separate but equal" facilities (specifically, transportation facilities), Justice John Marshall Harlan, in his dissent, protested that the decision was an expression of white supremacy; he predicted that segregation would "stimulate aggressions ... upon the admitted rights of colored citizens", "arouse race hate", and "perpetuate a feeling of distrust between [the] races. Feelings between Whites and Blacks were so tense, even the jails were segregated."[61] Elected in 1912, President Woodrow Wilson tolerated the extension of segregation throughout the federal government that was already underway.[62] In World War I, Blacks were drafted and served in the United States Army in segregated units. Black combat soldiers were often poorly trained and equipped, and new draftees were put on the front lines in dangerous missions.[63] The U.S. military was still heavily segregated in World War II. The air force and the marines had no Blacks enlisted in their ranks. There were Blacks in the Navy Seabees. The army had only five African-American officers.[64] In addition, no African-American would receive the Medal of Honor during the war, and their tasks in the war were largely reserved to noncombat units. Black soldiers had to sometimes give up their seats in trains to the Nazi prisoners of war.[64] A sign reading "We Cater to White Trade Only. "We Cater to White Trade Only" sign on a restaurant window in Lancaster, Ohio, in 1938. In 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested and spent a night in jail for attempting to eat at a white-only restaurant in St. Augustine, Florida. A club which was central to the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s, the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York City was a whites-only establishment, where Blacks (such as Duke Ellington) were allowed to perform, but they were only allowed to perform in front of a white audience.[65] In the reception to honor his success at the 1936 Summer Olympics, Jesse Owens was not permitted to enter through the main doors of the Waldorf Astoria New York and instead forced to travel up to the event in a freight elevator.[66] The first black Academy Award recipient Hattie McDaniel was not permitted to attend the premiere of Gone with the Wind at Loew's Grand Theatre, Atlanta, because of Georgia's segregation laws, and at the 12th Academy Awards ceremony at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles she was required to sit at a segregated table at the far wall of the room; the hotel had a no-blacks policy, but allowed McDaniel in as a favor.[67] Her final wish to be buried in Hollywood Cemetery was denied because the graveyard was restricted to Whites only.[67] On 11 September 1964, John Lennon announced the Beatles would not play to a segregated audience in Jacksonville, Florida.[68] City officials relented following this announcement.[68] A contract for a 1965 Beatles concert at the Cow Palace in California specifies that the band "not be required to perform in front of a segregated audience".[68] American sports were racially segregated until the mid-twentieth century. In baseball, the "Negro leagues" were established by Rube Foster for non-white players, such as Negro league baseball, which ran through the early 1950s.[69] In basketball, the Black Fives (all-black teams) were established in 1904, and emerged in New York City, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and other cities. Racial segregation in basketball lasted until 1950 when the NBA became racially integrated.[70] White tenants seeking to prevent Blacks from moving into the housing project erected this sign. Detroit, 1942. Many U.S. states banned interracial marriage. While opposed to slavery in the U.S., in a speech in Charleston, Illinois, in 1858, Abraham Lincoln stated, "I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races, that I am not, nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people. I as much as any man am in favor of the superior position assigned to the white race".[71] In 1967, Mildred Loving, a black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, were sentenced to a year in prison in Virginia for marrying each other.[72] Their marriage violated the state's anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited marriage between people classified as white and people classified as "colored" (persons of non-white ancestry).[73] In the Loving v. Virginia case in 1967, the Supreme Court invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage in the U.S.[74] Rosa Parks being fingerprinted after being arrested for not giving up her seat on the bus to a white person Institutionalized racial segregation was ended as an official practice during the civil rights movement by the efforts of such civil rights activists as Clarence M. Mitchell Jr., Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr. and James Farmer working for social and political freedom during the period from the end of World War II through the Interstate Commerce Commission desegregation order of 1961, the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965 supported by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Many of their efforts were acts of non-violent civil disobedience aimed at disrupting the enforcement of racial segregation rules and laws, such as refusing to give up a seat in the black part of the bus to a white person (Rosa Parks), or holding sit-ins at all-white diners. By 1968, all forms of segregation had been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren, and by 1970 support for formal legal segregation had dissolved.[75][76] The Warren Court's decision on landmark case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in 1954 outlawed segregation in public schools, and its decision on Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States in 1964 prohibits racial segregation and discrimination in public institutions and public accommodations.[77][78][79] The Fair Housing Act of 1968, administered and enforced by the Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, prohibited discrimination in the sale and rental of housing on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, and disability. Formal racial discrimination became illegal in school systems, businesses, the American military, other civil services and the government. However, implicit racism continues to this day through avenues like occupational segregation.[80] In recent years, there has been a trend that reverses those efforts to desegregate schools made by those mandatory school desegregation orders.[81] Historic cases (1970s to present) Bahrain See also: Human rights in Bahrain and Bandargate scandal On 28 April 2007, the lower house of Bahraini Parliament passed a law banning unmarried migrant workers from living in residential areas. To justify the law, Nasser Fadhala, MP, a close ally of the government, said "bachelors also use these houses to make alcohol, run prostitute rings or to rape children and housemaids".[82] Sadiq Rahma, technical committee head, who is a member of Al Wefaq, said: "The rules we are drawing up are designed to protect the rights of both the families and the Asian bachelors (..) these labourers often have habits which are difficult for families living nearby to tolerate (..) they come out of their homes half dressed, brew alcohol illegally in their homes, use prostitutes and make the neighbourhood dirty (..) these are poor people who often live in groups of 50 or more, crammed into one house or apartment," said Mr Rahma. "The rules also state that there must be at least one bathroom for every five people (..) there have also been cases in which young children have been sexually molested."[83] Bahrain Centre for Human Rights issued a press release condemning this decision as discriminatory and promoting negative racist attitudes towards migrant workers.[82][84] Nabeel Rajab, then BCHR vice president, said: "It is appalling that Bahrain is willing to rest on the benefits of these people's hard work, and often their suffering, but that they refuse to live with them in equality and dignity. The solution is not to force migrant workers into ghettos, but to urge companies to improve living conditions for workers – and not to accommodate large numbers of workers in inadequate space, and to improve the standard of living for them."[82][84] Canada Until 1965, racial segregation in schools, stores and most aspects of public life existed legally in Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia, and informally in other provinces such as British Columbia.[85] Since the 1970s, there has been a concern expressed by some academics that major Canadian cities are becoming more segregated on income and ethnic lines. Reports have indicated that the inner suburbs of post-merger Toronto[86] and the southern bedroom communities of Greater Vancouver[86] have become steadily more immigrant and visible minority dominated communities and have lagged behind other neighbourhoods in average income. A CBC panel in Vancouver in 2012 discussed the growing public fear that the proliferation of ethnic enclaves in Greater Vancouver (such as Han Chinese in Richmond and Punjabis in Surrey) amounted to a type of self-segregation. In response to these fears, many minority activists have pointed out that most Canadian neighbourhoods remain predominately White, and yet white people are never accused of "self-segregation". The Mohawk tribe of Kahnawake has been criticized for evicting non-Mohawks from the Mohawk reserve.[87] Mohawks who marry outside of their tribal nation lose their right to live in their homelands.[88][89] The Mohawk government claims that its policy of nationally exclusive membership is for the preservation of its identity,[90] but there is no exemption for those who adopt Mohawk language or culture.[88] All interracial couples were sent eviction notices regardless of how long they have lived on the reserve.[89] The only exemption is for mixed national couples married before the 1981 moratorium. Although some concerned Mohawk citizens contested the nationally exclusive membership policy, the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal ruled that the Mohawk government may adopt policies it deems necessary to ensure the survival of its people.[90] A long-standing practice of national segregation has also been imposed upon the commercial salmon fishery in British Columbia since 1992 when separate commercial fisheries were created for select aboriginal groups on three B.C. river systems. Canadians of other nations who fish in the separate fisheries have been arrested, jailed and prosecuted. Although the fishermen who were prosecuted were successful at trial in R v Kapp,[91] this decision was overturned on appeal.[92] Fiji Two military coups in Fiji in 1987 removed a democratically elected government led by Indo-Fijians.[93] This coup was supported principally by the ethnic Fijian population. A new constitution was promulgated in 1990, establishing Fiji as a republic, with the offices of President, Prime Minister, two-thirds of the Senate, and a clear majority of the House of Representatives reserved for ethnic Fijians; ethnic Fijian ownership of the land was also entrenched in the constitution.[94] Most of these provisions were ended with the promulgation of the 1997 Constitution, although the President (and 14 of the 32 Senators) were still selected by the all-indigenous Great Council of Chiefs. The last of these distinctions were removed by the 2013 Constitution.[95] Fiji's case is a situation of de facto racial segregation,[96] as Fiji has a long complex history of more than 3500 years as a divided tribal nation, with unification under 96 years of British rule also bringing other racial groups, particularly immigrants from the Indian subcontinent. Israel See also: Racism in Israel A barrier gate at Bil'in, West Bank, 2006 Israeli Declaration of Independence proclaims equal rights to all citizens regardless of ethnicity, denomination or race. Israel has a substantial list of laws that demand racial equality (such as prohibition of discrimination, equality in Employment, libel based on race or ethnicity).[97] There is however, in practice, significant institutional, legal, and societal discrimination against the country's Arab citizens.[98] In 2010, the Israeli Supreme Court sent a message against racial segregation in a case involving the Slonim Hassidic sect of the Ashkenazi Jews, ruling that segregation between Ashkenazi and Sephardi students in a school is illegal.[99] They argue that they seek "to maintain an equal level of religiosity, not from racism".[100] Responding to the charges, the Slonim Haredim invited Sephardi girls to school, and added in a statement: "All along, we said it's not about race, but the High Court went out against our rabbis, and therefore we went to prison."[101] Due to many cultural differences, and animosity towards a minority perceived to wish to annihilate Israel, a system of passively co-existing communities, segregated along ethnic lines has emerged in Israel, with Arab-Israeli minority communities being left "marooned outside the mainstream". This de facto segregation also exists between different Jewish ethnic groups ("edot") such as Sepharadim, Ashkenazim and Beta Israel (Jews of Ethiopian descent),[102] which leads to de facto segregated schools, housing and public policy. The government has embarked on a program to shut down such schools, in order to force integration, but some in the Ethiopian community complained that not all such schools have been closed.[103] In a 2007 poll commissioned by the Center Against Racism and conducted by the GeoCartographia Institute, 75% of Israeli Jews would not agree to live in a building with Arab residents, 60% would not accept any Arab visitors at their homes, 40% believed that Arabs should be stripped of their right to vote, and 59% believe that the culture of Arabs is primitive.[104] In 2012, a public opinion poll showed that 53% of the polled Israeli Jews said they would not object to an Arab living in their building, while 42% said they would. Asked whether they would object to Arab children being in their child's class in school, 49% said they would not, 42% said they would.[105][106] The secular Israeli public was found to be the most tolerant, while the religious and Haredi respondents were the most discriminatory. Kenya The end of British colonial rule in Kenya in 1964 led to an inadvertent increase in ethnic segregation. Through private purchases and government schemes, farmland previously held by European farmers was transferred to African owners. These farms were further sub-divided into smaller localities, and, due to joint migration, many adjacent localities were occupied by members of different ethnic groups.[107][pages needed] This separation along these boundaries persists today. Kimuli Kasara, in a study of recent ethnic violence in the wake of the disputed 2007-08 Kenyan elections, used these post-colonial boundaries as an instrument for the degree of ethnic segregation.[108] Through a 2 Stage Least Squares Regression analysis, Kasara showed that increased ethnic segregation in Kenya's Rift Valley Province is associated with an increase in ethnic violence.[108] Liberia The Constitution of Liberia limits Liberian nationality to Negro people[109] (see also Liberian nationality law). While Lebanese and Indian nationals are active in trading, as well as in the retail and service sectors, and Europeans and Americans work in the mining and agricultural sectors, these minority groups with long-tenured residence in the Republic are precluded from becoming citizens as a result of their race.[110] Malaysia Thousands of Malaysian Malay bumiputeras protesting against the ratification of ICERD. Main articles: Bumiputra and Ketuanan Melayu Malaysia has an article in its constitution which distinguishes the ethnic Malays and the non-ethnic Malays people—i.e. bumiputra—from the non-Bumiputra such as ethnic Chinese and Indians, among others, under the social contract, of which by law would guarantee the former certain special rights and privileges. To question these rights and privileges is strictly prohibited under the Internal Security Act (ISA), legalised by the 10th Article (IV) of the Constitution of Malaysia.[111] In essence, non-Malays are treated as second-class citizens in Malaysia, facing many roadblocks and discrimination in matters such as economic freedom, education, healthcare and housing.[112] Malaysia is also not a signatory of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), one of the only few countries in the world not to do so. A possible ratification in 2018 led to an anti-ICERD mass rally by Malay supremacists at the country's capital to prevent it, threatening a racial conflict if it does happen.[113] The privileges mentioned herein covers—few of which—the economical and education aspects of Malaysians, e.g. the Malaysian New Economic Policy; an economic policy criticised by Thierry Rommel, who headed a European Commission's delegation to Malaysia, as an excuse for "significant protectionism"[114][115] and a quota maintaining higher access of Malays into public universities. Such racial segregation policies have caused significant rates of human capital flight (brain drain) from Malaysia. A study by Stanford University highlighted that among the main factors behind the Malaysian brain drain include social injustice. It stated that the high rates of emigration of non-bumiputera Malaysians from the country is driven by discriminatory policies that appear to favour Malays/Bumiputeras—such as providing exclusive additional assistance in starting businesses and educational opportunities.[116] Mauritania Slavery in Mauritania was finally criminalized in August 2007.[117] It was already abolished in 1980, although it was still affecting the black Africans. The number of slaves in the country was not known exactly, but it was estimated to be up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population.[118][119] For centuries, the so-called Haratin lower class, mostly poor black Africans living in rural areas, have been considered natural slaves by white Moors of Arab/Berber ancestry. Many descendants of the Arab and Berber tribes today still adhere to the supremacist ideology of their ancestors. This ideology has led to oppression, discrimination and even enslavement of other groups in the region of Sudan and Western Sahara.[120][121][122] United Kingdom Main article: Racial segregation in the United Kingdom Although racial segregation was never made legal in the UK, occasionally pubs, workplaces, shops and other commercial premises operated a "colour bar" where non-white customers were banned from using certain rooms and facilities.[123] Segregation also operated in the 20th century in certain professions,[124] in housing and even at Buckingham Palace.[125] The colour bar in pubs was deemed illegal by the Race Relations Act 1965 but other institutions such as members' clubs could still bar people because of their race until a few years later. The United Kingdom nowadays has no legally sanctioned system of racial segregation and has a substantial list of laws that demand racial equality.[126] However, due to many cultural differences between the pre-existing system of passively co-existing communities, segregation along racial lines has emerged in parts of the United Kingdom, with minority communities being left "marooned outside the mainstream".[127] The affected and 'ghettoised' communities are often largely representative of Pakistanis, Indians and other Sub-Continentals, and has been thought to be the basis of ethnic tensions, and a deterioration of the standard of living and levels of education and employment among ethnic minorities in poorer areas. These factors are considered by some to have been a cause of the 2001 English race riots in Bradford, Oldham and Harehills in northern England which have large Asian communities.[128][129] There may be some indication that such segregation, particularly in residential terms, seems to be the result of the unilateral 'steering' of ethnic groups into particular areas as well as a culture of vendor discrimination and distrust of ethnic minority clients by some estate agents and other property professionals.[130] This may be indicative of a market preference amongst the more wealthy to reside in areas of less ethnic mixture; less ethnic mixture being perceived as increasing the value and desirability of a residential area. This is likely as other theories such as "ethnic self segregation" have sometimes been shown to be baseless, and a majority of ethnic respondents to a few surveys on the matter have been in favour of wider social and residential integration.[129] University of Michigan students arrested for protesting segregation in Ann Arbor; April 19, 1960 United States See also: Racial segregation in the United States § Contemporary De facto segregation in the United States has increased since the civil rights movement, while official segregation has been outlawed.[131] The Supreme Court ruled in Milliken v. Bradley (1974) that de facto racial segregation was acceptable, as long as schools were not actively making policies for racial exclusion; since then, schools have been segregated due to myriad indirect factors.[131] Redlining is part of how white communities in America maintained some level of racial segregation. It is the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services, such as mortgages, banking, insurance, access to jobs,[132] access to health care, or even supermarkets[133] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[134] areas. The most effective form of redlining, and the practice most commonly meant by the term, refers to mortgage discrimination. Over the next twenty years, a succession of further court decisions and federal laws, including the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act and measure to end mortgage discrimination in 1975, would completely invalidate de jure racial segregation and discrimination in the U.S. According to Rajiv Sethi, an economist at Columbia University, black-white segregation in housing is slowly declining for most metropolitan areas in the US.[135] Racial segregation or separation can lead to social, economic and political tensions.[136] Thirty years (the year 2000) after the civil rights era, the United States remained in many areas a residentially segregated society, in which Blacks, whites and Hispanics inhabit different neighborhoods of vastly different quality.[137][138][139] Dan Immergluck writes that in 2002 small businesses in black neighborhoods still received fewer loans, even after accounting for businesses density, businesses size, industrial mix, neighborhood income, and the credit quality of local businesses.[140] Gregory D. Squires wrote in 2003 that it is clear that race has long affected and continues to affect the policies and practices of the insurance industry.[141] Workers living in American inner cities have a harder time finding jobs than suburban workers.[142] Some academics have labeled the desire of many whites to avoid having their children attend academically inferior integrated schools as being a factor in "white flight" from the cities.[143] A 2007 study in San Francisco showed that groups of homeowners of all races tended to self-segregate in order to be with people of the same economic status, education level and race.[144] By 1990, the legal barriers enforcing segregation had been mostly replaced, although today many white Americans are willing to pay a premium to live in a predominantly white neighborhood.[145] Equivalent housing in white areas commands a higher rent.[146] These higher rents are largely attributable to exclusionary zoning policies that restrict the supply of housing. Through the 1990s, residential segregation remained at its extreme and has been called "hypersegregation" by some sociologists or "American Apartheid".[147] In February 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Johnson v. California 543 U.S. 499 (2005) that the California Department of Corrections' unwritten practice of racially segregating prisoners in its prison reception centers—which California claimed was for inmate safety (gangs in California, as throughout the U.S., usually organize on racial lines)—is to be subject to strict scrutiny, the highest level of constitutional review.[148] Yemen See also: Castes in Yemen In Yemen, the Arab elite practices a form of discrimination against the lower class Al-Akhdam people based on their racial characteristics.[149] See also Afrophobia Amity-enmity complex Black Lives Matter Black nationalism Black power Black power movement Black separatism Black supremacy Caste Discrimination Discrimination based on skin color Ethnic nationalism Ethnocentrism In-group and out-group Nationalism Nativism (politics) Racial discrimination Racial hierarchy Racial nationalism Racism Supremacism White nationalism White supremacy § White separatism Xenophobia Iowa's Jones founded historic school Laurence Clifton Jones couldn't bear to think that he was a well-educated Northerner, yet most other young African Americans were not - especially in the Deep South. As a result, he made the education of impoverished, illiterate blacks his mission in life. The school he established in Mississippi in 1909, Piney Woods, thrives to this day. But 99 years ago, Jones' school was just a peaceful clearing in the woods about 22 miles southeast of Jackson, Miss. His first desk was a tree stump, and his first student, seated on a log, was a 16-year-old boy who couldn't read or write. The next day there were two more boys joining the first. In the weeks that followed, the boys brought more friends, and when there were about 30, Jones knew he had the community support he needed to open a formal school. Near a cedar tree whose shade cooled Jones and his students sat a deserted log cabin, inhabited only by wild sheep, that Jones thought would make a good schoolhouse. Told that the building was "a throwed-away place," Jones sought its owner and learned it was the property of an aged former slave, Ed Taylor, who ended up deeding it - and a 40-acre plot - for the school. Taylor had once worked as a barber in Keokuk before returning to Mississippi more successful than most black men of the era. The rural black community around Braxton, Miss., and some whites helped Piney Woods Country Life School get off the ground, and Jones sent out 1,100 letters requesting financial contributions. But when he received just two replies, he made a trip back to Iowa - first Keokuk and then Des Moines - to obtain financial contributions. Indeed, much of the school's early support came from Iowans, many of whom not only donated money but who also repeatedly sent boxes of used clothing, books and blankets for the needy students. Jones' emphasis was on vocational training as well as the three R's and normal academic subjects. Students at the self- sufficient boarding school were expected to work in Piney Woods' gardens and fields as well as on campus for their tuition. Their rigorous days started at 5 a.m., with lights out at 9:45 p.m. Jones was born Nov. 21, 1882, in St. Joseph, Mo., the son of John Jones, a porter at the Pacific Hotel who also operated the hotel barbershop, and his wife. As a child, Jones attended Lincoln School and developed a love for music, poetry, books and theater. He raised and sold rabbits and pigeons, shined shoes and worked as a "newsie" - a newspaper carrier. He dreamed of someday owning his own chicken farm. But as a young teen dissatisfied with the education he was getting at St. Joseph High School, Jones came to Iowa. He arrived in Marshalltown at the urging of his Uncle Bill and Aunt Dot, who had moved there from Cedar Rapids. Jones worked in the Pilgrim Hotel in exchange for room and board. He slept in a small basem*nt room. He later wrote: "I worked at nearly everything about the hotel. When a bellboy, porter, fireman, dishwasher or bootblack wanted an evening off or was ill, I usually worked in his place. Quite often I was called out to serve parties in the town, and I also had the job of swinging the front door for members of the Twentieth Century Club at their monthly meetings, for which I received a dollar an evening, and best of all, a chance to hear the programs." In 1903, Jones was the first black student to graduate from Marshalltown High School and was chosen to write the class song used for commencement. Jones attended Central Iowa Business College for a short time, but with good recommendations, he was able to enroll at the University of Iowa - this time living in an attic and working a variety of jobs until he graduated in 1907 with a bachelor of philosophy degree. At school he had many influential white friends. Jones then taught for two years in Arkansas and Hinds County, Mississippi, before establishing the Southern school that would bring him respect and acclaim. While a junior at the U of I, Jones met Grace Morris Allen, who had been born in Keokuk but who grew up in Burlington and had established her own industrial school there. In 1912, the couple married in Des Moines, where Jones knew Allen would be spending the summer. They later had two sons. Allen's vision, as well as her teaching and management skills, proved invaluable as Piney Woods grew. Jones grieved when she died of pneumonia in 1928 after an exhausting 18-month fund-raising tour. By the mid-1950s, Jones was traveling 50,000 miles across the country yearly, making as many as 12 speeches weekly before churches, civic clubs and educational groups. By doing so, he always managed to raise the school's $80,000 annual budget without any help from foundation grants. In 1955, he said: "The principal support over the years has always come from Iowa." The school benefited greatly in 1954 when Jones was chosen for an episode of the popular Ralph Edwards television program "This Is Your Life." Edwards personally appealed to his national audience to mail in $1 contributions to help Piney Woods, and more than $700,000 was received as a result of the initial broadcast - thereby establishing the school's original endowment fund. Even after passing age 70, Jones was working 12-hour days. He died July 13, 1975, at a Jackson, Miss., hospital. He and his wife are buried in the Piney Woods Cemetery at the school. OWA WOMEN’S ARCHIVES UNIVERSITY OF IOWA LIBRARIES IOWA CITY, IOWA GRACE MORRIS ALLEN JONES (1876-1928) PAPERS, 1927-1975 (bulk 1927-1928) 6 items (photocopies) ACQUISITION: The papers (donor no. 380) were donated by the Piney Woods Country Life School in 1996. ACCESS: The papers are open for research. COPYRIGHT: Originals of these papers are housed at the Piney Woods Country Life School. To quote from these materials, please request permission from Angela Stewart, Piney Woods Country Life School Archives, P.O. Box 92, Piney Woods, Mississippi 39148. PROCESSED BY: Kristen Rassbach, 1997 and Kathryn M. Neal, 1998. REVISED: Kathryn Neal , 1998, version WORD97. Biography Grace Morris Allen Jones, educator, was born in Keokuk, Iowa on January 7, 1876 and grew up in Burlington, Iowa. In 1902, she established the Grace M. Allen Industrial School in Burlington for African-American students. The school was so successful that white students began to attend. Allen employed both African-American and white teachers. She closed the school in 1906. In 1912, she married Dr. Laurence Jones, a University of Iowa graduate who founded the Piney Woods Country Life School in Piney Woods, Mississippi. Grace Jones was proficient at fundraising for the Piney Woods School and also taught laundry, sewing, domestic science, weaving and textiles, and basketry courses there. Jones was a member of the Mississippi State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs. As part of her club work, she taught the women of the area about child rearing and nutrition. Jones was deeply involved in women's issues and was particularly concerned about the welfare of children. She led an effort to establish a training school for African-American children, which resulted in the founding of a school by the Mississippi State Federated Colored Women's Clubs in 1928. That institution, based in Learned, Mississippi, eventually was purchased by the State of Mississippi and renamed Oakley School. Jones was also concerned about health care and sanitation issues, particularly the number of tuberculosis cases among blacks in the same state. In 1923, she organized a state conference on health and welfare. She died from the after-effects of pneumonia in 1928. Laurence C. Jones graduated from the University of Iowa in 1907. He was born in St. Joseph, Missouri, on November 21, 1884. Very little is known about Jones' college years. After graduation, Jones first taught at Utica Institute and later moved to Piney Woods, Mississippi, where he founded the Piney Woods Country Life School in 1909. Jones started the school with little monetary resources and three students. Over the years, Jones transformed this small unknown academy into a premier institution. Jones was on the advisory council of the Mississippi Federation of Colored Women's Clubs and the state executive committee for the Y.M.C.A.. The University of Iowa (then SUI) President Virgil Hancher named Jones one of the University's 10 most outstanding alumni. Up Through Difficulties (1910), Piney Woods and Its Story (1923), and The Bottom Rail (1933) are among several books and articles published by Jones. Mississippi (/ˌmɪsɪˈsɪpi/ (listen)) is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the north by Tennessee; to the east by Alabama; to the south by the Gulf of Mexico; to the southwest by Louisiana; and to the northwest by Arkansas. Mississippi's western boundary is largely defined by the Mississippi River. Mississippi is the 32nd largest by area and 35th-most populous of the 50 U.S. states and has the lowest per-capita income in the United States. Jackson is both the state's capital and largest city. Greater Jackson is the state's most populous metropolitan area, with a population of 591,978 in 2020.[6] On December 10, 1817, Mississippi became the 20th state admitted to the Union. By 1860, Mississippi was the nation's top cotton-producing state and slaves accounted for 55% of the state population.[7] Mississippi declared its secession from the Union on January 9, 1861, and was one of the seven original Confederate States, which constituted the largest slaveholding states in the nation. Following the Civil War, it was restored to the Union on February 23, 1870.[8] Mississippi was the site of many prominent events during the civil rights movement, including the Ole Miss riot of 1962, the 1963 assassination of Medgar Evers, and the 1964 Freedom Summer murders. Mississippi ranks among the lowest of U.S. states in measures of health, education, development, and income.[9][10][11][12] Top economic industries in Mississippi today are agriculture and forestry. Mississippi produces more than half of the country's farm-raised catfish, and is also a top producer of sweet potatoes, cotton and pulpwood. Other main industries in Mississippi include advanced manufacturing, utilities, transportation, and health services.[13] Mississippi is almost entirely within the east Gulf Coastal Plain, and generally consists of lowland plains and low hills. The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. Mississippi's highest point is Woodall Mountain at 807 feet (246 m) above sea level adjacent to the Cumberland Plateau; the lowest is the Gulf of Mexico. Mississippi has a humid subtropical climate classification. Etymology The state's name is derived from the Mississippi River, which flows along and defines its western boundary. European-American settlers named it after the Ojibwe word ᒥᓯ-ᓰᐱ misi-ziibi (English: great river). History This section should include only a brief summary of History of Mississippi. See Wikipedia:Summary style for information on how to properly incorporate it into this article's main text. (April 2023) Main article: History of Mississippi Near 10,000 BC Native Americans or Paleo-Indians arrived in what today is referred to as the American South.[14] Paleo-Indians in the South were hunter-gatherers who pursued the megafauna that became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. In the Mississippi Delta, Native American settlements and agricultural fields were developed on the natural levees, higher ground in the proximity of rivers. The Native Americans developed extensive fields near their permanent villages. Together with other practices, they created some localized deforestation but did not alter the ecology of the Mississippi Delta as a whole.[15] After thousands of years, succeeding cultures of the Woodland and Mississippian culture eras developed rich and complex agricultural societies, in which surplus supported the development of specialized trades. Both were mound builder cultures. Those of the Mississippian culture were the largest and most complex, constructed beginning about 950 AD. The peoples had a trading network spanning the continent from the Great Lakes to the Gulf Coast. Their large earthworks, which expressed their cosmology of political and religious concepts, still stand throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys. Choctaw Village near the Chefuncte, by Francois Bernard, 1869, Peabody Museum—Harvard University. The women are preparing dye in order to color cane strips for making baskets. Descendant Native American tribes of the Mississippian culture in the Southeast include the Chickasaw and Choctaw. Other tribes who inhabited the territory of Mississippi (and whose names were honored by colonists in local towns) include the Natchez, the Yazoo, and the Biloxi. The first major European expedition into the territory that became Mississippi was that of the Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto, who passed through the northeast part of the state in 1540, in his second expedition to the New World. Colonial era Main articles: New France, Louisiana (New France), French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), New Spain, West Florida, Indian Reserve (1763), American Revolutionary War, Treaty of Paris (1783), and Spanish West Florida In April 1699, French colonists established the first European settlement at Fort Maurepas (also known as Old Biloxi), built in the vicinity of present-day Ocean Springs on the Gulf Coast. It was settled by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville. In 1716, the French founded Natchez on the Mississippi River (as Fort Rosalie); it became the dominant town and trading post of the area. The French called the greater territory "New France"; the Spanish continued to claim part of the Gulf coast area (east of Mobile Bay) of present-day southern Alabama, in addition to the entire area of present-day Florida. The British assumed control of the French territory after the French and Indian War. Pushmataha, Principal Chief of the Choctaw During the colonial era, European settlers imported enslaved Africans to work on cash crop plantations. Under French and Spanish rule, there developed a class of free people of color (gens de couleur libres), mostly multiracial descendants of European men and enslaved or free black women, and their mixed-race children. In the early days the French and Spanish colonists were chiefly men. Even as more European women joined the settlements, the men had interracial unions among women of African descent (and increasingly, multiracial descent), both before and after marriages to European women. Often the European men would help their multiracial children get educated or gain apprenticeships for trades, and sometimes they settled property on them; they often freed the mothers and their children if enslaved, as part of contracts of plaçage. With this social capital, the free people of color became artisans, and sometimes educated merchants and property owners, forming a third class between the Europeans and most enslaved Africans in the French and Spanish settlements, although not so large a free community as in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. After Great Britain's victory in the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War), the French surrendered the Mississippi area to them under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763). They also ceded their areas to the north that were east of the Mississippi River, including the Illinois Country and Quebec. After the Peace of Paris (1783), the lower third of Mississippi came under Spanish rule as part of West Florida. In 1819 the United States completed the purchase of West Florida and all of East Florida in the Adams–Onís Treaty, and in 1822 both were merged into the Florida Territory. United States territory Main articles: Seminole Wars, Adams–Onís Treaty, Organic act § List of organic acts, and Mississippi Territory After the American Revolution (1775–83), Britain ceded this area to the new United States of America. The Mississippi Territory was organized on April 7, 1798, from territory ceded by Georgia and South Carolina to the United States. Their original colonial charters theoretically extended west to the Pacific Ocean. The Mississippi Territory was later twice expanded to include disputed territory claimed by both the United States and Spain. From 1800 to about 1830, the United States purchased some lands (Treaty of Doak's Stand) from Native American tribes for new settlements of European Americans. The latter were mostly migrants from other Southern states, particularly Virginia and North Carolina, where soils were exhausted.[16] New settlers kept encroaching on Choctaw land, and they pressed the federal government to expel the Native Americans. On September 27, 1830, the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was signed between the U.S. Government and the Choctaw. The Choctaw agreed to sell their traditional homelands in Mississippi and Alabama, for compensation and removal to reservations in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). This opened up land for sale to European-American migrant settlement. Article 14 in the treaty allowed those Choctaw who chose to remain in the states to become U.S. citizens, as they were considered to be giving up their tribal membership. They were the second major Native American ethnic group to do so (some Cherokee were the first, who chose to stay in North Carolina and other areas during rather than join the removal).[17][18] Today their descendants include approximately 9,500 persons identifying as Choctaw, who live in Neshoba, Newton, Leake, and Jones counties. The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians reorganized in the 20th century and is a Federally recognized tribe. Many slaveholders brought enslaved African Americans with them or purchased them through the domestic slave trade, especially in New Orleans. Through the trade, an estimated nearly one million slaves were forcibly transported to the Deep South, including Mississippi, in an internal migration that broke up many slave families of the Upper South, where planters were selling excess slaves. The Southerners imposed slave laws in the Deep South and restricted the rights of free blacks. Beginning in 1822, slaves in Mississippi were protected by law from cruel and unusual punishment by their owners.[19] The Southern slave codes made the willful killing of a slave illegal in most cases.[20] For example, the 1860 Mississippi case of Oliver v. State charged the defendant with murdering his own slave.[21] D'Evereux Hall in Natchez. Built in 1840, the mansion is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Statehood to Civil War Main articles: Admission to the Union and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Mississippi became the 20th state on December 10, 1817. David Holmes was the first governor.[22] The state was still occupied as ancestral land by several Native American tribes, including Choctaw, Natchez, Houma, Creek, and Chickasaw.[23][24] Plantations were developed primarily along the major rivers, where the waterfront provided access to the major transportation routes. This is also where early towns developed, linked by the steamboats that carried commercial products and crops to markets. The remainder of Native American ancestral land remained largely undeveloped but was sold through treaties until 1826, when the Choctaws and Chickasaws refused to sell more land.[25] The combination of the Mississippi state legislature's abolition of Choctaw Tribal Government in 1829,[26] President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act and the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek of 1830,[27] the Choctaw were effectively forced to sell their land and were transported to Oklahoma Territory. The forced migration of the Choctaw, together with other southeastern tribes removed as a result of the Act, became known as the Trail of Tears. When cotton was king during the 1850s, Mississippi plantation owners—especially those of the Delta and Black Belt central regions—became wealthy due to the high fertility of the soil, the high price of cotton on the international market, and free labor gained through their holding enslaved African Americans. They used some of their profits to buy more cotton land and more slaves. The planters' dependence on hundreds of thousands of slaves for labor and the severe wealth imbalances among whites, played strong roles both in state politics and in planters' support for secession. Mississippi was a slave society, with the economy dependent on slavery. The state was thinly settled, with population concentrated in the riverfront areas and towns. By 1860, the enslaved African-American population numbered 436,631 or 55% of the state's total of 791,305 persons. Fewer than 1000 were free people of color.[28] The relatively low population of the state before the American Civil War reflected the fact that land and villages were developed only along the riverfronts, which formed the main transportation corridors. Ninety percent of the Delta bottomlands were still frontier and undeveloped.[29] The state needed many more settlers for development. The land further away from the rivers was cleared by freedmen and white migrants during Reconstruction and later.[29] Civil War through late 19th century Main articles: Ordinance of Secession, Confederate States of America, Mississippi in the American Civil War, and Reconstruction era Confederate lines, Vicksburg, May 19, 1863. Shows assault by US 1st Battalion, 13th Infantry. On January 9, 1861, Mississippi became the second state to declare its secession from the Union, and it was one of the founding members of the Confederate States. The first six states to secede were those with the highest number of slaves. During the war, Union and Confederate forces struggled for dominance on the Mississippi River, critical to supply routes and commerce. More than 80,000 Mississippians fought in the Civil War for the Confederate Army. Around 17,000 black and 545 white Mississippians would serve in the Union Army. Pockets of Unionism in Mississippi were in places such as the northeastern corner of the state and Jones County, where Newton Knight formed a revolt with Unionist leanings, known as the "Free State of Jones."[30] Union General Ulysses S. Grant's long siege of Vicksburg finally gained the Union control of the river in 1863. In the postwar period, freedmen withdrew from white-run churches to set up independent congregations. The majority of blacks left the Southern Baptist Convention, sharply reducing its membership. They created independent black Baptist congregations. By 1895 they had established numerous black Baptist state associations and the National Baptist Convention of black churches.[31] In addition, independent black denominations, such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church (established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the early 19th century) and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (established in New York City), sent missionaries to the South in the postwar years. They quickly attracted hundreds of thousands of converts and founded new churches across the South. Southern congregations brought their own influences to those denominations as well.[31][32] During Reconstruction, the first Mississippi constitutional convention in 1868, with delegates both black and white, framed a constitution whose major elements would be maintained for 22 years.[33] The convention was the first political organization in the state to include African-American representatives, 17 among the 100 members (32 counties had black majorities at the time). Some among the black delegates were freedmen, but others were educated free blacks who had migrated from the North. The convention adopted universal suffrage; did away with property qualifications for suffrage or for office, a change that also benefited both blacks and poor whites; provided for the state's first public school system; forbade race distinctions in the possession and inheritance of property; and prohibited limiting civil rights in travel.[33] Under the terms of Reconstruction, Mississippi was restored to the Union on February 23, 1870. Because the Mississippi Delta contained so much fertile bottomland that had not been developed before the American Civil War, 90 percent of the land was still frontier. After the Civil War, tens of thousands of migrants were attracted to the area by higher wages offered by planters trying to develop land. In addition, black and white workers could earn money by clearing the land and selling timber, and eventually advance to ownership. The new farmers included many freedmen, who by the late 19th century achieved unusually high rates of land ownership in the Mississippi bottomlands. In the 1870s and 1880s, many black farmers succeeded in gaining land ownership.[29] The legislature of the state of Mississippi in 1890 Around the start of the 20th century, two-thirds of the Mississippi farmers who owned land in the Delta were African American.[29] But many had become overextended with debt during the falling cotton prices of the difficult years of the late 19th century. Cotton prices fell throughout the decades following the Civil War. As another agricultural depression lowered cotton prices into the 1890s, numerous African-American farmers finally had to sell their land to pay off debts, thus losing the land which they had developed by hard, personal labor.[29] Democrats had regained control of the state legislature in 1875, after a year of expanded violence against blacks and intimidation of whites in what was called the "white line" campaign, based on asserting white supremacy. Democratic whites were well armed and formed paramilitary organizations such as the Red Shirts to suppress black voting. From 1874 to the elections of 1875, they pressured whites to join the Democrats, and conducted violence against blacks in at least 15 known "riots" in cities around the state to intimidate blacks. They killed a total of 150 blacks, although other estimates place the death toll at twice as many. A total of three white Republicans and five white Democrats were reported killed. In rural areas, deaths of blacks could be covered up. Riots (better described as massacres of blacks) took place in Vicksburg, Clinton, Macon, and in their counties, as well-armed whites broke up black meetings and lynched known black leaders, destroying local political organizations.[34] Seeing the success of this deliberate "Mississippi Plan", South Carolina and other states followed it and also achieved white Democratic dominance. In 1877 by a national compromise, the last of federal troops were withdrawn from the region. Even in this environment, black Mississippians continued to be elected to local office. However, black residents were deprived of all political power after white legislators passed a new state constitution in 1890 specifically to "eliminate the nigg*r from politics", according to the state's Democratic governor, James K. Vardaman.[35] It erected barriers to voter registration and instituted electoral provisions that effectively disenfranchised most black Mississippians and many poor whites. Estimates are that 100,000 black and 50,000 white men were removed from voter registration rolls in the state over the next few years.[36] The loss of political influence contributed to the difficulties of African Americans in their attempts to obtain extended credit in the late 19th century. Together with imposition of Jim Crow and racial segregation laws, whites increased violence against blacks, with lynchings occurring through the period of the 1890s and extending to 1930. 20th century to present Child workers, Pass Christian, 1911, by Lewis Hine In 1900, blacks made up more than half of the state's population. By 1910, a majority of black farmers in the Delta had lost their land and became sharecroppers. By 1920, the third generation after freedom, most African Americans in Mississippi were landless laborers again facing poverty.[29] Starting about 1913, tens of thousands of black Americans left Mississippi for the North in the Great Migration to industrial cities such as St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Philadelphia and New York. They sought jobs, better education for their children, the right to vote, relative freedom from discrimination, and better living. In the migration of 1910–1940, they left a society that had been steadily closing off opportunity. Most migrants from Mississippi took trains directly north to Chicago and often settled near former neighbors. Cotton crops failed due to boll weevil infestation and successive severe flooding in 1912 and 1913, creating crisis conditions for many African Americans. With control of the ballot box and more access to credit, white planters bought out such farmers, expanding their ownership of Delta bottomlands. They also took advantage of new railroads sponsored by the state.[29] Blacks also faced violence in the form of lynching, shooting, and the burning of churches. In 1923, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People stated "the Negro feels that life is not safe in Mississippi and his life may be taken with impunity at any time upon the slightest pretext or provocation by a white man".[37] Mexican American boy and African American man at the Knowlton Plantation, Perthshire, Mississippi, in 1939, by Marion Post Wolcott Dancing at a juke joint near Clarksdale, Mississippi, in 1939, by Marion Post Wolcott In the early 20th century, some industries were established in Mississippi, but jobs were generally restricted to whites, including child workers. The lack of jobs also drove some southern whites north to cities such as Chicago and Detroit, seeking employment, where they also competed with European immigrants. The state depended on agriculture, but mechanization put many farm laborers out of work. By 1900, many white ministers, especially in the towns, subscribed to the Social Gospel movement, which attempted to apply Christian ethics to social and economic needs of the day. Many strongly supported Prohibition, believing it would help alleviate and prevent many sins.[38] Mississippi became a dry state in 1908 by an act of the state legislature.[39] It remained dry until the legislature passed a local option bill in 1966.[40] African-American Baptist churches grew to include more than twice the number of members as their white Baptist counterparts. The African-American call for social equality resonated throughout the Great Depression in the 1930s and World War II in the 1940s. The Second Great Migration from the South started in the 1940s, lasting until 1970. Almost half a million people left Mississippi in the second migration, three-quarters of them black. Nationwide during the first half of the 20th century, African Americans became rapidly urbanized and many worked in industrial jobs. The Second Great Migration included destinations in the West, especially California, where the buildup of the defense industry offered higher-paying jobs to both African Americans and whites. Blacks and whites in Mississippi generated rich, quintessentially American music traditions: gospel music, country music, jazz, blues and rock and roll. All were invented, promulgated or heavily developed by Mississippi musicians, many of them African American, and most came from the Mississippi Delta. Many musicians carried their music north to Chicago, where they made it the heart of that city's jazz and blues. So many African Americans left in the Great Migration that after the 1930s, they became a minority in Mississippi. In 1960 they made up 42% of the state's population.[41] The whites maintained their discriminatory voter registration processes established in 1890, preventing most blacks from voting, even if they were well educated. Court challenges were not successful until later in the century. After World War II, African-American veterans returned with renewed commitment to be treated as full citizens of the United States and increasingly organized to gain enforcement of their constitutional rights. The Civil Rights movement had many roots in religion, and the strong community of churches helped supply volunteers and moral purpose for their activism. Mississippi was a center of activity, based in black churches, to educate and register black voters, and to work for integration. In 1954 the state had created the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission, a tax-supported agency, chaired by the Governor, that claimed to work for the state's image but effectively spied on activists and passed information to the local White Citizens' Councils to suppress black activism. White Citizens Councils had been formed in many cities and towns to resist integration of schools following the unanimous 1954 United States Supreme Court ruling (Brown v. Board of Education) that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional. They used intimidation and economic blackmail against activists and suspected activists, including teachers and other professionals. Techniques included loss of jobs and eviction from rental housing. In the summer of 1964 students and community organizers from across the country came to help register black voters in Mississippi and establish Freedom Schools. The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party was established to challenge the all-white Democratic Party of the Solid South. Most white politicians resisted such changes. Chapters of the Ku Klux Klan and its sympathizers used violence against activists, most notably the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner in 1964 during the Freedom Summer campaign. This was a catalyst for Congressional passage the following year of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Mississippi earned a reputation in the 1960s as a reactionary state.[42][43] After decades of disenfranchisem*nt, African Americans in the state gradually began to exercise their right to vote again for the first time since the 19th century, following the passage of federal civil rights legislation in 1964 and 1965, which ended de jure segregation and enforced constitutional voting rights. Registration of African-American voters increased and black candidates ran in the 1967 elections for state and local offices. The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party fielded some candidates. Teacher Robert G. Clark of Holmes County was the first African American to be elected to the State House since Reconstruction. He continued as the only African American in the state legislature until 1976 and was repeatedly elected into the 21st century, including three terms as Speaker of the House.[44] In 1966, the state was the last to repeal officially statewide prohibition of alcohol. Before that, Mississippi had taxed the illegal alcohol brought in by bootleggers. Governor Paul Johnson urged repeal and the sheriff "raided the annual Junior League Mardi Gras ball at the Jackson Country Club, breaking open the liquor cabinet and carting off the Champagne before a startled crowd of nobility and high-ranking state officials".[45] The end of legal segregation and Jim Crow led to the integration of some churches, but most today remain divided along racial and cultural lines, having developed different traditions. After the Civil War, most African Americans left white churches to establish their own independent congregations, particularly Baptist churches, establishing state associations and a national association by the end of the 20th century. They wanted to express their own traditions of worship and practice.[46] In more diverse communities, such as Hattiesburg, some churches have multiracial congregations.[47] On August 17, 1969, Category 5 Hurricane Camille hit the Mississippi coast, killing 248 people and causing US$1.5 billion in damage (1969 dollars). Mississippi ratified the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, in March 1984, which had already entered into force by August 1920; granting women the right to vote.[48] Flagpoles standing behind Hattiesburg, Mississippi sign, 2016 In 1987, 20 years after the U.S. Supreme Court had ruled in 1967's Loving v. Virginia that a similar Virginian law was unconstitutional, Mississippi repealed its ban on interracial marriage (also known as miscegenation), which had been enacted in 1890. It also repealed the segregationist-era poll tax in 1989. In 1995, the state symbolically ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, which had abolished slavery in 1865. In 2009, the legislature passed a bill to repeal other discriminatory civil rights laws, which had been enacted in 1964, the same year as the federal Civil Rights Act, but ruled unconstitutional in 1967 by federal courts. Republican Governor Haley Barbour signed the bill into law.[49] On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina, though a Category 3 storm upon final landfall, caused even greater destruction across the entire 90 miles (145 km) of the Mississippi Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Alabama. The previous flag of Mississippi, used until June 30, 2020, featured the Confederate battle flag. The previous flag of Mississippi, used until June 30, 2020, featured the Confederate battle flag. Mississippi became the last state to remove the Confederate battle flag as an official state symbol on June 30, 2020, when Governor Tate Reeves signed a law officially retiring the second state flag. The current flag, The "New Magnolia" flag, was selected via referendum as part of the general election on November 3, 2020.[50][51] It officially became the state flag on January 11, 2021, after being signed into law by the state legislature and governor. Geography Map of Mississippi NA.png Bottomland hardwood swamp near Ashland Map of the Mississippi Delta Region (outlined in green) Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico; and to the west, across the Mississippi River, by Louisiana and Arkansas. In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, and the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla, Sardis, and Grenada, with the largest being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is entirely composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, at 807 ft (246 m) above sea level, in the northeastern part of the state. The lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 ft (91 m) above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the east Gulf Coastal Plain. The coastal plain is generally composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state. The northeast is a region of fertile black earth uplands, a geology that extend into the Alabama Black Belt. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis, Biloxi, and Pascagoula. It is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, which is partially sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island, East and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, and Cat Island. The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain is narrow in the south and widens north of Vicksburg. The region has rich soil, partly made up of silt which had been regularly deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include:[52] Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Major cities and towns Map with all counties and their county seats Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000 (United States Census Bureau as of 2017):[53] Jackson (166,965) Gulfport (71,822) Southaven (54,031) Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000 (United States Census Bureau as of 2017):[53] Hattiesburg (46,377) Biloxi (45,908) Tupelo (38,114) Meridian (37,940) Olive Branch (37,435) Greenville (30,686) Horn Lake (27,095) Pearl (26,534) Madison (25,627) Starkville (25,352) Clinton (25,154) Ridgeland (24,266) Columbus (24,041) Brandon (23,999) Oxford (23,639) Vicksburg (22,489) Pascagoula (21,733) Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000 (United States Census Bureau as of 2017):[53] Gautier (18,512) Laurel (18,493) Ocean Springs (17,682) Hernando (15,981) Clarksdale (15,732) Long Beach (15,642) Natchez (14,886) Corinth (14,643) Greenwood (13,996) Moss Point (13,398) McComb (13,267) Bay St. Louis (13,043) Canton (12,725) Grenada (12,267) Brookhaven (12,173) Cleveland (11,729) Byram (11,671) D'Iberville (11,610) Picayune (11,008) West Point (10,675) Yazoo City (11,018) Petal (10,633) (See: Lists of cities, towns and villages, census-designated places, metropolitan areas, micropolitan areas, and counties in Mississippi) Climate Köppen climate types of Mississippi, using 1991-2020 climate normals Mississippi has a humid subtropical climate with long, hot and humid summers, and short, mild winters. Temperatures average about 81 °F (27 °C) in July and about 42 °F (6 °C) in January. The temperature varies little statewide in the summer; however, in winter, the region near Mississippi Sound is significantly warmer than the inland portion of the state. The recorded temperature in Mississippi has ranged from −19 °F (−28 °C), in 1966, at Corinth in the northeast, to 115 °F (46 °C), in 1930, at Holly Springs in the north. Snowfall is scant throughout the state, occurring only rarely in the south. Yearly precipitation generally increases from north to south, with the regions closer to the Gulf being the most humid. Thus, Clarksdale, in the northwest, gets about 50 in (1,300 mm) of precipitation annually and Biloxi, in the south, about 61 in (1,500 mm). Small amounts of snow fall in northern and central Mississippi; snow is occasional in the southern part of the state. Hurricanes Camille (left) and Katrina from satellite imagery, as they approached the Mississippi Gulf Coast The late summer and fall is the seasonal period of risk for hurricanes moving inland from the Gulf of Mexico, especially in the southern part of the state. Hurricane Camille in 1969 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which killed 238 people in the state, were the most devastating hurricanes to hit the state. Both caused nearly total storm surge destruction of structures in and around Gulfport, Biloxi, and Pascagoula. As in the rest of the Deep South, thunderstorms are common in Mississippi, especially in the southern part of the state. On average, Mississippi has around 27 tornadoes annually; the northern part of the state has more tornadoes earlier in the year and the southern part a higher frequency later in the year. Two of the five deadliest tornadoes in United States history have occurred in the state. These storms struck Natchez, in southwest Mississippi (see The Great Natchez Tornado) and Tupelo, in the northeast corner of the state. About seven F5 tornadoes have been recorded in the state. Monthly normal high and low temperatures (°F) for various Mississippi cities City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Gulfport 61/43 64/46 70/52 77/59 84/66 89/72 91/74 91/74 87/70 79/60 70/51 63/45 Jackson 55/35 60/38 68/45 75/52 82/61 89/68 91/71 91/70 86/65 77/52 66/43 58/37 Meridian 58/35 63/38 70/44 77/50 84/60 90/67 93/70 93/70 88/64 78/51 68/43 60/37 Tupelo 50/30 56/34 65/41 74/48 81/58 88/66 91/70 91/68 85/62 75/49 63/40 54/33 Source:[54] Climate data for Mississippi (1980–2010) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °F (°C) 54.3 (12.4) 58.7 (14.8) 67.2 (19.6) 75.2 (24.0) 82.6 (28.1) 88.9 (31.6) 91.4 (33.0) 91.5 (33.1) 86.3 (30.2) 76.9 (24.9) 66.5 (19.2) 56.6 (13.7) 74.7 (23.7) Average low °F (°C) 33.3 (0.7) 36.7 (2.6) 43.8 (6.6) 51.3 (10.7) 60.3 (15.7) 67.6 (19.8) 70.6 (21.4) 69.7 (20.9) 63 (17) 51.9 (11.1) 43.1 (6.2) 35.7 (2.1) 52.3 (11.2) Average precipitation inches (mm) 5.0 (130) 5.2 (130) 5.1 (130) 5.0 (130) 5.1 (130) 4.4 (110) 4.5 (110) 3.9 (99) 3.6 (91) 4.1 (100) 4.9 (120) 5.7 (140) 56.5 (1,420) Source:[55] Climate change These paragraphs are an excerpt from Climate change in Mississippi.[edit] Climate change in Mississippi encompasses the effects of climate change, attributed to man-made increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, in the U.S. state of Mississippi. Studies show that Mississippi is among a string of "Deep South" states that will experience the worst effects of climate change in the United States.[56] The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports: "In the coming decades, Mississippi will become warmer, and both floods and droughts may be more severe. Unlike most of the nation, Mississippi did not become warmer during the last 50 to 100 years. But soils have become drier, annual rainfall has increased, more rain arrives in heavy downpours, and sea level is rising about one inch every seven years. The changing climate is likely to increase damages from tropical storms, reduce crop yields, harm livestock, increase the number of unpleasantly hot days, and increase the risk of heat stroke and other heat-related illnesses".[57] Ecology, flora, and fauna Leaving Tennessee on US Highway 61 Clark Creek Natural Area, Wilkinson County Mississippi is heavily forested, with over half of the state's area covered by wild or cultivated trees. The southeastern part of the state is dominated by longleaf pine, in both uplands and lowland flatwoods and Sarracenia bogs. The Mississippi Alluvial Plain, or Delta, is primarily farmland and aquaculture ponds but also has sizeable tracts of cottonwood, willows, bald cypress, and oaks. A belt of loess extends north to south in the western part of the state, where the Mississippi Alluvial Plain reaches the first hills; this region is characterized by rich, mesic mixed hardwood forests, with some species disjunct from Appalachian forests.[58] Two bands of historical prairie, the Jackson Prairie and the Black Belt, run northwest to southeast in the middle and northeastern part of the state. Although these areas have been highly degraded by conversion to agriculture, a few areas remain, consisting of grassland with interspersed woodland of eastern redcedar, oaks, hickories, osage-orange, and sugarberry. The rest of the state, primarily north of Interstate 20 not including the prairie regions, consists of mixed pine-hardwood forest, common species being loblolly pine, oaks (e.g., water oak), hickories, sweetgum, and elm. Areas along large rivers are commonly inhabited by bald cypress, water tupelo, water elm, and bitter pecan. Commonly cultivated trees include loblolly pine, longleaf pine, cherrybark oak, and cottonwood. There are approximately 3000 species of vascular plants known from Mississippi.[59] As of 2018, a project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation aims to update that checklist of plants with museum (herbarium) vouchers and create an online atlas of each species's distribution.[60] About 420 species of birds are known to inhabit Mississippi. Mississippi has one of the richest fish faunas in the United States, with 204 native fish species.[61] Mississippi also has a rich freshwater mussel fauna, with about 90 species in the primary family of native mussels (Unionidae).[62] Several of these species were extirpated during the construction of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. Mississippi is home to 63 crayfish species, including at least 17 endemic species.[63] Mississippi is home to eight winter stonefly species.[64] Ecological problems Flooding Further information: List of Mississippi River floods Due to seasonal flooding, possible from December to June, the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers and their tributaries created a fertile floodplain in the Mississippi Delta. The river's flooding created natural levees, which planters had built higher to try to prevent flooding of land cultivated for cotton crops. Temporary workers built levees along the Mississippi River on top of the natural levees that formed from dirt deposited after the river flooded. From 1858 to 1861, the state took over levee building, accomplishing it through contractors and hired labor. In those years, planters considered their slaves too valuable to hire out for such dangerous work. Contractors hired gangs of Irish immigrant laborers to build levees and sometimes clear land. Many of the Irish were relatively recent immigrants from the famine years who were struggling to get established.[65] Before the American Civil War, the earthwork levees averaged six feet in height, although in some areas they reached twenty feet. Flooding has been an integral part of Mississippi history, but clearing of the land for cultivation and to supply wood fuel for steamboats took away the absorption of trees and undergrowth. The banks of the river were denuded, becoming unstable and changing the character of the river. After the Civil War, major floods swept down the valley in 1865, 1867, 1874 and 1882. Such floods regularly overwhelmed levees damaged by Confederate and Union fighting during the war, as well as those constructed after the war.[66] In 1877, the state created the Mississippi Levee District for southern counties. In 1879, the United States Congress created the Mississippi River Commission, whose responsibilities included aiding state levee boards in the construction of levees. Both white and black transient workers were hired to build the levees in the late 19th century. By 1882, levees averaged seven feet in height, but many in the southern Delta were severely tested by the flood that year.[66] After the 1882 flood, the levee system was expanded. In 1884, the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta Levee District was established to oversee levee construction and maintenance in the northern Delta counties; also included were some counties in Arkansas which were part of the Delta.[67] Flooding overwhelmed northwestern Mississippi in 1912–1913, causing heavy damage to the levee districts. Regional losses and the Mississippi River Levee Association's lobbying for a flood control bill helped gain passage of national bills in 1917 and 1923 to provide federal matching funds for local levee districts, on a scale of 2:1. Although U.S. participation in World War I interrupted funding of levees, the second round of funding helped raise the average height of levees in the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta to 22 feet (6.7 m) in the 1920s.[68] Scientists now understand the levees have increased the severity of flooding by increasing the flow speed of the river and reducing the area of the floodplains. The region was severely damaged due to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, which broke through the levees. There were losses of millions of dollars in property, stock and crops. The most damage occurred in the lower Delta, including Washington and Bolivar counties.[69] Even as scientific knowledge about the Mississippi River has grown, upstream development and the consequences of the levees have caused more severe flooding in some years. Scientists now understand that the widespread clearing of land and building of the levees have changed the nature of the river. Such work removed the natural protection and absorption of wetlands and forest cover, strengthening the river's current. The state and federal governments have been struggling for the best approaches to restore some natural habitats in order to best interact with the original riverine ecology. Demographics Historical population Census Pop. Note %± 1800 7,600 — 1810 31,306 311.9% 1820 75,448 141.0% 1830 136,621 81.1% 1840 375,651 175.0% 1850 606,526 61.5% 1860 791,305 30.5% 1870 827,922 4.6% 1880 1,131,597 36.7% 1890 1,289,600 14.0% 1900 1,551,270 20.3% 1910 1,797,114 15.8% 1920 1,790,618 −0.4% 1930 2,009,821 12.2% 1940 2,183,796 8.7% 1950 2,178,914 −0.2% 1960 2,178,141 0.0% 1970 2,216,912 1.8% 1980 2,520,638 13.7% 1990 2,573,216 2.1% 2000 2,844,658 10.5% 2010 2,967,297 4.3% 2020 2,961,279 −0.2% 2022 (est.) 2,940,057 −0.7% Source: 1910–2020[70] 2022[71] Mississippi population density map Mississippi's population has remained from 2 million people at the 1930 U.S. census, to 2.9 million at the 2020 census.[72] In contrast with Alabama to its east, and Louisiana to its west, Mississippi has been the slowest growing of the three Gulf coast states by population.[73] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Mississippi's center of population is located in Leake County, in the town of Lena.[74] According to HUD's 2022 Annual Homeless Assessment Report, there were an estimated 1,196 homeless people in Mississippi.[75] [76] From 2000 to 2010, the United States Census Bureau reported that Mississippi had the highest rate of increase in people identifying as mixed-race, up 70 percent in the decade; it amounts to a total of 1.1 percent of the population.[47] In addition, Mississippi led the nation for most of the last decade in the growth of mixed marriages among its population. The total population has not increased significantly, but is young. Some of the above change in identification as mixed-race is due to new births. But, it appears mostly to reflect those residents who have chosen to identify as more than one race, who in earlier years may have identified by just one race or ethnicity. A binary racial system had been in place since slavery times and the days of official government racial segregation. In the civil rights era, people of African descent banded together in an inclusive community to achieve political power and gain restoration of their civil rights. As the demographer William H. Frey noted, "In Mississippi, I think it's [identifying as mixed race] changed from within."[47] Historically in Mississippi, after Indian removal in the 1830s, the major groups were designated as black (African American), who were then mostly enslaved, and white (primarily European American). Matthew Snipp, also a demographer, commented on the increase in the 21st century in the number of people identifying as being of more than one race: "In a sense, they're rendering a more accurate portrait of their racial heritage that in the past would have been suppressed."[47] After having accounted for a majority of the state's population since well before the American Civil War and through the 1930s, today African Americans constitute approximately 37.8 percent of the state's population. Most have ancestors who were enslaved, with many forcibly transported from the Upper South in the 19th century to work on the area's new plantations. Many of these slaves were mixed race, with European ancestors, as there were many children born into slavery with white fathers. Some also have Native American ancestry.[77] During the first half of the 20th century, a total of nearly 400,000 African Americans left the state during the Great Migration, for opportunities in the North, Midwest and West. They became a minority in the state for the first time since early in its development.[78] Race and ethnicity Map of counties in Mississippi by racial plurality, per the 2020 U.S. census Legend Racial and ethnic composition as of the 2020 census Race and ethnicity[72] Alone Total White (non-Hispanic) 55.4% 57.9% African American (non-Hispanic) 36.4% 37.6% Hispanic or Latino[b] — 3.6% Asian 1.1% 1.5% Native American 0.5% 1.6% Pacific Islander 0.04% 0.1% Other 0.2% 0.7% Historical racial and ethnic composition from 1990-2010 Americans of Scots-Irish, English and Scottish ancestry are present throughout the state. It is believed that there are more people with such ancestry than identify as such on the census, in part because their immigrant ancestors are more distant in their family histories. English, Scottish and Scots-Irish are generally the most under-reported ancestry groups in both the South Atlantic states and the East South Central states. The historian David Hackett Fischer estimated that a minimum 20% of Mississippi's population is of English ancestry, though the figure is probably much higher, and another large percentage is of Scottish ancestry. Many Mississippians of such ancestry identify simply as American on questionnaires, because their families have been in North America for centuries.[82][83] In the 1980 U.S. census, 656,371 Mississippians of a total of 1,946,775 identified as being of English ancestry, making them 38% of the state at the time.[84] The state in 2010 had the highest proportion of African Americans in the nation. The African American percentage of population has begun to increase due mainly to a younger population than the whites (the total fertility rates of the two races are approximately equal). Due to patterns of settlement and whites putting their children in private schools, in almost all of Mississippi's public school districts, a majority of students are African American. African Americans are the majority ethnic group in the northwestern Yazoo Delta, and the southwestern and the central parts of the state. These are areas where, historically, African Americans owned land as farmers in the 19th century following the Civil War, or worked on cotton plantations and farms.[85] People of French Creole ancestry form the largest demographic group in Hanco*ck County on the Gulf Coast. The African American, Choctaw (mostly in Neshoba County), and Chinese American portions of the population are also almost entirely native born. The Chinese first came to Mississippi as contract workers from Cuba and California in the 1870s, and they originally worked as laborers on the cotton plantations. However, most Chinese families came later between 1910 and 1930 from other states, and most operated small family-owned groceries stores in the many small towns of the Delta.[86] In these roles, the ethnic Chinese carved out a niche in the state between black and white, where they were concentrated in the Delta. These small towns have declined since the late 20th century, and many ethnic Chinese have joined the exodus to larger cities, including Jackson. Their population in the state overall has increased in the 21st century.[87][88][89][90] In the early 1980s many Vietnamese immigrated to Mississippi and other states along the Gulf of Mexico, where they became employed in fishing-related work.[91] As of 2011, 53.8% of Mississippi's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.[92] Birth data Ethnic origins in Mississippi Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother Race 2013[93] 2014[94] 2015[95] 2016[96] 2017[97] 2018[98] 2019[99] 2020[100] 2021[101] White: 20,818 (53.9%) 20,894 (53.9%) 20,730 (54.0%) ... ... ... ... ... ... > Non-hispanic White 19,730 (51.0%) 19,839 (51.3%) 19,635 (51.1%) 19,411 (51.2%) 18,620 (49.8%) 18,597 (50.2%) 18,229 (49.8%) 17,648 (49.8%) 17,818 (50.7%) Black 17,020 (44.0%) 17,036 (44.0%) 16,846 (43.9%) 15,879 (41.9%) 16,087 (43.1%) 15,797 (42.7%) 15,706 (42.9%) 15,155 (42.7%) 14,619 (41.6%) Asian 504 (1.3%) 583 (1.5%) 559 (1.5%) 475 (1.3%) 502 (1.3%) 411 (1.1%) 455 (1.2%) 451 (1.3%) 404 (1.1%) American Indian 292 (0.7%) 223 (0.6%) 259 (0.7%) 215 (0.6%) 225 (0.6%) 238 (0.6%) 242 (0.7%) 252 (0.7%) 227 (0.6%) Hispanic (of any race) 1,496 (3.9%) 1,547 (4.0%) 1,613 (4.2%) 1,664 (4.4%) 1,650 (4.4%) 1,666 (4.5%) 1,709 (4.7%) 1,679 (4.7%) 1,756 (5.0%) Total Mississippi 38,634 (100%) 38,736 (100%) 38,394 (100%) 37,928 (100%) 37,357 (100%) 37,000 (100%) 36,636 (100%) 35,473 (100%) 35,156 (100%) Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. LGBT community The 2010 United States census counted 6,286 same-sex unmarried-partner households in Mississippi, an increase of 1,512 since the 2000 United States census.[102] Of those same-sex couples roughly 33% contained at least one child, giving Mississippi the distinction of leading the nation in the percentage of same-sex couples raising children.[103] Mississippi has the largest percentage of African American same-sex couples among total households. The state capital, Jackson, ranks tenth in the nation in concentration of African American same-sex couples. The state ranks fifth in the nation in the percentage of Hispanic same-sex couples among all Hispanic households and ninth in the highest concentration of same-sex couples who are seniors.[104] Language Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Mississippi Language Percentage of population (as of 2010)[105] Spanish 1.9% French 0.4% German, Vietnamese, and Choctaw (tied) 0.2% Korean, Chinese, Tagalog, Italian (tied) 0.1% In 2000, 96.4% of Mississippi residents five years old and older spoke only English in the home, a decrease from 97.2% in 1990.[106] English is largely Southern American English, with some South Midland speech in northern and eastern Mississippi. There is a common absence of final /r/, particularly in the elderly natives and African Americans, and the lengthening and weakening of the diphthongs /aɪ/ and /ɔɪ/ as in 'ride' and 'oil'. South Midland terms in northern Mississippi include: tow sack (burlap bag), dog irons (andirons), plum peach (clingstone peach), snake doctor (dragonfly), and stone wall (rock fence).[106] Religion Religious self-identification, per Public Religion Research Institute's 2022 American Values Survey[107] Protestantism (74%) Catholicism (8%) Jehovah's Witness (1%) Mormonism (1%) Unaffilated (15%) New Age (1%) Under French and Spanish rule beginning in the 17th century, European colonists were mostly Roman Catholics. The growth of the cotton culture after 1815 brought in tens of thousands of Anglo-American settlers each year, most of whom were Protestants from Southeastern states. Due to such migration, there was rapid growth in the number of Protestant denominations and churches, especially among the Methodists, Presbyterians and Baptists.[108] Liberty Baptist Church, Amite County The revivals of the Great Awakening in the late 18th and early 19th centuries initially attracted the "plain folk" by reaching out to all members of society, including women and blacks. Both slaves and free blacks were welcomed into Methodist and Baptist churches. Independent black Baptist churches were established before 1800 in Virginia, Kentucky, South Carolina and Georgia, and later developed in Mississippi as well. In the post-Civil War years, religion became more influential as the South became known as the "Bible Belt". By 2014, the Pew Research Center determined 83% of its population was Christian.[109] In a separate study by the Public Religion Research Institute in 2020, 80% of the population was Christian.[110] In another Public Religion study in 2022, 84% of the population was Christian spread throughout Protestants (74%), Catholics (8%), Jehovah's Witnesses (1%), and Mormons (1%). Since the 1970s, fundamentalist conservative churches have grown rapidly, fueling Mississippi's conservative political trends among whites.[108] In 1973 the Presbyterian Church in America attracted numerous conservative congregations. As of 2010, Mississippi remained a stronghold of the denomination, which originally was brought by Scots immigrants. The state has the highest adherence rate of the PCA in 2010, with 121 congregations and 18,500 members. It is among the few states where the PCA has higher membership than the PC(USA).[111] According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010 the Southern Baptist Convention had 907,384 adherents and was the largest religious denomination in the state, followed by the United Methodist Church with 204,165, and the Roman Catholic Church with 112,488.[112] Other religions have a small presence in Mississippi; as of 2010, there were 5,012 Muslims; 4,389 Hindus; and 816 of the Baháʼí Faith.[112] According to the Pew Research Center in 2014, with evangelical Protestantism as the predominant Christian affiliation, the Southern Baptist Convention remained the largest denomination in the state.[109] Non-denominational Evangelicals were the second-largest, followed by historically African American denominations such as the National Baptist Convention, USA and Progressive National Baptist Convention. Public opinion polls have consistently ranked Mississippi as the most religious state in the United States, with 59% of Mississippians considering themselves "very religious". The same survey also found that 11% of the population were non-Religious.[113] In a 2009 Gallup poll, 63% of Mississippians said that they attended church weekly or almost weekly—the highest percentage of all states (U.S. average was 42%, and the lowest percentage was in Vermont at 23%).[114] Another 2008 Gallup poll found that 85% of Mississippians considered religion an important part of their daily lives, the highest figure among all states (U.S. average 65%).[115] Health The state is ranked 50th or last place among all the states for health care, according to the Commonwealth Fund, a nonprofit foundation working to advance performance of the health care system.[116] Mississippi has the highest rate of infant and neonatal deaths of any U.S. state. Age-adjusted data also shows Mississippi has the highest overall death rate, and the highest death rate from heart disease, hypertension and hypertensive renal disease, influenza and pneumonia.[117] In 2011, Mississippi (and Arkansas) had the fewest dentists per capita in the United States.[118] For three years in a row, more than 30 percent of Mississippi's residents have been classified as obese. In a 2006 study, 22.8 percent of the state's children were classified as such. Mississippi had the highest rate of obesity of any U.S. state from 2005 to 2008, and also ranks first in the nation for high blood pressure, diabetes, and adult inactivity.[119][120] In a 2008 study of African-American women, contributing risk factors were shown to be: lack of knowledge about body mass index (BMI), dietary behavior, physical inactivity and lack of social support, defined as motivation and encouragement by friends.[121] A 2002 report on African-American adolescents noted a 1999 survey which suggests that a third of children were obese, with higher ratios for those in the Delta.[122] The study stressed that "obesity starts in early childhood extending into the adolescent years and then possibly into adulthood". It noted impediments to needed behavioral modification, including the Delta likely being "the most underserved region in the state" with African Americans the major ethnic group; lack of accessibility and availability of medical care; and an estimated 60% of residents living below the poverty level. Additional risk factors were that most schools had no physical education curriculum and nutrition education is not emphasized. Previous intervention strategies may have been largely ineffective due to not being culturally sensitive or practical.[122] A 2006 survey found nearly 95 percent of Mississippi adults considered childhood obesity to be a serious problem.[123] A 2017 study found that Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Mississippi was the leading health insurer with 53% followed by UnitedHealth Group at 13%.[124] Economy See also: Mississippi locations by per capita income A Mississippi U.S. quarter The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Mississippi's total state product in 2010 was $98 billion.[125] GDP growth was .5 percent in 2015 and is estimated to be 2.4 in 2016 according to Darrin Webb, the state's chief economist, who noted it would make two consecutive years of positive growth since the recession.[126] Per capita personal income in 2006 was $26,908, the lowest per capita personal income of any state, but the state also has the nation's lowest living costs. 2015 data records the adjusted per capita personal income at $40,105.[126] Mississippians consistently rank as one of the highest per capita in charitable contributions.[127] At 56 percent, the state has one of the lowest workforce participation rates in the country. Approximately 70,000 adults are disabled, which is 10 percent of the workforce.[126] Mississippi's rank as one of the poorest states is related to its dependence on cotton agriculture before and after the Civil War, late development of its frontier bottomlands in the Mississippi Delta, repeated natural disasters of flooding in the late 19th and early 20th century that required massive capital investment in levees, and ditching and draining the bottomlands, and slow development of railroads to link bottomland towns and river cities.[128] In addition, when Democrats regained control of the state legislature, they passed the 1890 constitution that discouraged corporate industrial development in favor of rural agriculture, a legacy that would slow the state's progress for years.[129] Before the Civil War, Mississippi was the fifth-wealthiest state in the nation, its wealth generated by the labor of slaves in cotton plantations along the rivers.[130] Slaves were counted as property and the rise in the cotton markets since the 1840s had increased their value. By 1860, a majority—55 percent—of the population of Mississippi was enslaved.[131] Ninety percent of the Delta bottomlands were undeveloped and the state had low overall density of population. Sharecropper's daughter, Lauderdale County, 1935 Largely due to the domination of the plantation economy, focused on the production of agricultural cotton, the state's elite was reluctant to invest in infrastructure such as roads and railroads. They educated their children privately. Industrialization did not reach many areas until the late 20th century. The planter aristocracy, the elite of antebellum Mississippi, kept the tax structure low for their own benefit, making only private improvements. Before the war the most successful planters, such as Confederate President Jefferson Davis, owned riverside properties along the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers in the Mississippi Delta. Away from the riverfronts, most of the Delta was undeveloped frontier. During the Civil War, 30,000 Mississippi soldiers, mostly white, died from wounds and disease, and many more were left crippled and wounded. Changes to the labor structure and an agricultural depression throughout the South caused severe losses in wealth. In 1860 assessed valuation of property in Mississippi had been more than $500 million, of which $218 million (43 percent) was estimated as the value of slaves. By 1870, total assets had decreased in value to roughly $177 million.[132] Poor whites and landless former slaves suffered the most from the postwar economic depression. The constitutional convention of early 1868 appointed a committee to recommend what was needed for relief of the state and its citizens. The committee found severe destitution among the laboring classes.[133] It took years for the state to rebuild levees damaged in battles. The upset of the commodity system impoverished the state after the war. By 1868 an increased cotton crop began to show possibilities for free labor in the state, but the crop of 565,000 bales produced in 1870 was still less than half of prewar figures.[134] Blacks cleared land, selling timber and developing bottomland to achieve ownership. In 1900, two-thirds of farm owners in Mississippi were blacks, a major achievement for them and their families. Due to the poor economy, low cotton prices and difficulty of getting credit, many of these farmers could not make it through the extended financial difficulties. Two decades later, the majority of African Americans were sharecroppers. The low prices of cotton into the 1890s meant that more than a generation of African Americans lost the result of their labor when they had to sell their farms to pay off accumulated debts.[29] After the Civil War, the state refused for years to build human capital by fully educating all its citizens. In addition, the reliance on agriculture grew increasingly costly as the state suffered loss of cotton crops due to the devastation of the boll weevil in the early 20th century, devastating floods in 1912–1913 and 1927, collapse of cotton prices after 1920, and drought in 1930.[128] It was not until 1884, after the flood of 1882, that the state created the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta District Levee Board and started successfully achieving longer-term plans for levees in the upper Delta.[67] Despite the state's building and reinforcing levees for years, the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 broke through and caused massive flooding of 27,000 square miles (70,000 km2) throughout the Delta, homelessness for hundreds of thousands, and millions of dollars in property damages. With the Depression coming so soon after the flood, the state suffered badly during those years. In the Great Migration, hundreds of thousands of African Americans migrated North and West for jobs and chances to live as full citizens. Energy [icon] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2023) Solar power This section is an excerpt from Solar power in Mississippi.[edit] Solar panels Mississippi has substantial potential for solar power, though it remains an underutilized generation method. The rate of installations has increased in recent years, reaching 438 MW of installed capacity in early 2023, ranking 36th among the states.[135] Rooftop photovoltaics could provide 31.2% of all electricity used in Mississippi from 11,700 MW if solar panels were installed on every available roof.[136] In 2011, the Sierra Club sued the United States Department of Energy which was providing investment in a coal gasification plant being built by Mississippi Power.[137] In 2012 Mississippi Power had only 0.05% renewables in its power mix. In a settlement in 2014, Mississippi Power agreed to allow net metering, and to offer 100 MW of wind or solar power purchase agreements. Mississippi is one of only two states, along with Florida, to have no potential for standard commercial wind power, having no locations that would provide at least 30% capacity factor, although 30,000 MW of 100 meter high turbines would operate at 25% capacity factor.[138] Georgia Power which provides energy in southeast Mississippi has started a program to contract for 210 MW of solar power in 2014, possibly increasing to 525 MW. 100 MW would be from small scale distributed installations.[139] Offering net metering is required by federal law, but Mississippi is one of only four states to not have adopted a statewide policy on net metering, which means it needs to be negotiated with the utility.[140][141] Entertainment and tourism The legislature's 1990 decision to legalize casino gambling along the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast has led to increased revenues and economic gains for the state. Gambling towns in Mississippi have attracted increased tourism: they include the Gulf Coast resort towns of Bay St. Louis, Gulfport and Biloxi, and the Mississippi River towns of Tunica (the third largest gaming area in the United States), Greenville, Vicksburg and Natchez. Before Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast, Mississippi was the second-largest gambling state in the Union, after Nevada and ahead of New Jersey.[citation needed] In August 2005, an estimated $500,000 per day in tax revenue, equivalent to $749,191 in 2022, was lost following Hurricane Katrina's severe damage to several coastal casinos in Biloxi.[142] Because of the destruction from this hurricane, on October 17, 2005, Governor Haley Barbour signed a bill into law that allows casinos in Hanco*ck and Harrison counties to rebuild on land (but within 800 feet (240 m) of the water). The only exception is in Harrison County, where the new law states that casinos can be built to the southern boundary of U.S. Route 90.[citation needed] In 2012, Mississippi had the sixth largest gambling revenue of any state, at $2.25 billion.[143] The federally recognized Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians has established a gaming casino on its reservation, which yields revenue to support education and economic development.[citation needed] Momentum Mississippi, a statewide, public–private partnership dedicated to the development of economic and employment opportunities in Mississippi, was adopted in 2005.[144] Manufacturing 2014 Corolla built by Toyota Motor Manufacturing Mississippi on display at the Tupelo Automobile Museum Mississippi, like the rest of its southern neighbors, is a right-to-work state. It has some major automotive factories, such as the Toyota Mississippi Plant in Blue Springs and a Nissan Automotive plant in Canton. The latter produces the Nissan Titan. Taxation Mississippi collects personal income tax in three tax brackets, ranging from 3% to 5%. The retail sales tax rate in Mississippi is 7%. Tupelo levies a local sales tax of 2.5%.[145] State sales tax growth was 1.4 percent in 2016 and estimated to be slightly less in 2017.[126] For purposes of assessment for ad valorem taxes, taxable property is divided into five classes.[146] On August 30, 2007, a report by the United States Census Bureau indicated that Mississippi was the poorest state in the country. Major cotton farmers in the Delta have large, mechanized plantations, and they receive the majority of extensive federal subsidies going to the state, yet many other residents still live as poor, rural, landless laborers. The state's sizable poultry industry has faced similar challenges in its transition from family-run farms to large mechanized operations.[147] Of $1.2 billion from 2002 to 2005 in federal subsidies to farmers in the Bolivar County area of the Delta, only 5% went to small farmers. There has been little money apportioned for rural development. Small towns are struggling. More than 100,000 people have left the region in search of work elsewhere.[148] The state had a median household income of $34,473.[149] Employment As of February 2023, the state's unemployment rate was 3.7%, the eleventh-highest in the country, tied with Arizona, Massachusetts, and West Virginia.[150] This is an improvement over the 3.9% rate in January 2023, and 4% over the previous year. The highest unemployment rate recorded in the state was in April 2020, during the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, at 15.6%.[151] Federal subsidies and spending With Mississippi's fiscal conservatism, in which Medicaid, welfare, food stamps, and other social programs are often cut, eligibility requirements are tightened, and stricter employment criteria are imposed, Mississippi ranks as having the second-highest ratio of spending to tax receipts of any state. In 2005, Mississippi citizens received approximately $2.02 per dollar of taxes in the way of federal spending. This ranks the state second-highest nationally, and represents an increase from 1995, when Mississippi received $1.54 per dollar of taxes in federal spending and was 3rd highest nationally.[152] This figure is based on federal spending after large portions of the state were devastated by Hurricane Katrina, requiring large amounts of federal aid from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). However, from 1981 to 2005, it was at least number four in the nation for federal spending vs. taxes received.[153] A proportion of federal spending in Mississippi is directed toward large federal installations such as Camp Shelby, John C. Stennis Space Center, Meridian Naval Air Station, Columbus Air Force Base, and Keesler Air Force Base. Three of these installations are located in the area affected by Hurricane Katrina. Politics and government Main articles: Mississippi Legislature, Government of Mississippi, List of Governors of Mississippi, and Political party strength in Mississippi Five Governors of Mississippi in 1976, from left: Ross Barnett, James P. Coleman, William L. Waller, John Bell Williams, and Paul B. Johnson Jr. As with all other U.S. states and the federal government, Mississippi's government is based on the separation of legislative, executive and judicial power. Executive authority in the state rests with the Governor, currently Tate Reeves (R). The lieutenant governor, currently Delbert Hosemann (R), is elected on a separate ballot. Both the governor and lieutenant governor are elected to four-year terms of office. Unlike the federal government, but like many other U.S. states, most of the heads of major executive departments are elected by the citizens of Mississippi rather than appointed by the governor. Mississippi is one of five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years (the others are Kentucky, Louisiana, New Jersey and Virginia). Mississippi holds elections for these offices every four years, always in the year preceding presidential elections. In a 2020 study, Mississippi was ranked as the 4th hardest state for citizens to vote in.[154] Laws Further information: Constitution of the State of Mississippi, Abortion law in Mississippi, LGBT rights in Mississippi, Gun laws in Mississippi, and Capital punishment in Mississippi In 2004, Mississippi voters approved a state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage and prohibiting Mississippi from recognizing same-sex marriages performed elsewhere. The amendment passed 86% to 14%, the largest margin in any state.[155][156] Same-sex marriage became legal in Mississippi on June 26, 2015, when the United States Supreme Court invalidated all state-level bans on same-sex marriage as unconstitutional in the landmark case Obergefell v. Hodges.[157] With the passing of HB 1523 in April 2016, from July it became legal in Mississippi to refuse service to same-sex couples, based on one's religious beliefs.[158][159] The bill has become the subject of controversy.[160] A federal judge blocked the law in July of that year;[161] however, it was challenged, and a federal appeals court ruled in favor of the law in October 2017.[162][163] Mississippi's regulations on abortion are among the most restrictive in the United States. A 2014 poll by Pew Research Center found that 59% of the state's population thinks abortion should be illegal in all/most cases, while only 36% of the state's population thinks abortion should be legal in all/most cases.[164] Mississippi has banned sanctuary cities.[165] Mississippi retains the death penalty (see also: capital punishment in Mississippi). The preferred form of execution is the lethal injection.[166][167] Section 265 of the Constitution of the State of Mississippi declares that "No person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being shall hold any office in this state."[168] However, this religious test restriction was held to be unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in Torcaso v. Watkins (1961). Gun laws in Mississippi are among the most permissive in the country, with no license or background check required to openly carry handguns in most places in the state. In 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in a 6−3 decision in Jones v. Mississippi that a Mississippi law allowing mandatory sentencing of children to life imprisonment without parole is valid and that states and judges can impose such sentences without separately deciding if the child can be rehabilitated. Political alignment Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election Mississippi led the South in developing a disenfranchising constitution, passing it in 1890. By raising barriers to voter registration, the state legislature disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites, excluding them from politics until the late 1960s. It established a one-party state dominated by white Democrats, particularly those politicians who supported poor whites and farmers. Although the state was dominated by one party, there were a small number of Democrats who fought against most legislative measures that disenfranchised most blacks.[169] They also side with the small group of Mississippi Republicans that still existed in the state and Republicans at the federal level on legislative measures that benefited them. Most blacks were still disenfranchised under the state's 1890 constitution and discriminatory practices, until passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and concerted grassroots efforts to achieve registration and encourage voting.[citation needed] In the 1980s, whites divided evenly between the parties. In the 1990s, those voters largely shifted their allegiance to the Republican Party, first for national and then for state offices.[170] In 2019, a lawsuit was filed against an 1890 election law known as The Mississippi Plan, which requires that candidates must win the popular vote and a majority of districts.[171] In the following year, 79% of Mississippians voted to remove the requirement of doing so.[172] Transportation Air Mississippi has six airports with commercial passenger service, the busiest in Jackson (Jackson-Evers International Airport). Roads Mississippi is the only American state where people in cars may legally consume beer. Some localities have laws restricting the practice.[173] In 2018, the state was ranked number eight in the Union in terms of impaired driving deaths.[174] The Vicksburg Bridge carries I-20 and U.S. 80 across the Mississippi River at Vicksburg. Mississippi is served by nine interstate highways: I-10 I-110 I-20 I-220 I-22 I-55 I-59 I-69 I-269 and fourteen main U.S. Routes: US 11 US 45 US 49 US 51 US 61 US 72 US 78 US 278 US 80 US 82 US 84 US 90 US 98 US 425 as well as a system of State Highways. Rail vte Mississippi passenger rail Legend City of New Orleans to Chicago Crescent to New York City DodgerBlue flag waving.svg Marks Meridian Greenwood Laurel DodgerBlue flag waving.svg DodgerBlue flag waving.svg Yazoo City Hattiesburg Jackson Picayune DodgerBlue flag waving.svg DodgerBlue flag waving.svg Hazlehurst Crescent to New Orleans Brookhaven DodgerBlue flag waving.svg McComb Suspended 2005 City of New Orleans to New Orleans Sunset Limited to Orlando Pascagoula Biloxi Gulfport Bay St. Louis Sunset Limited to Los Angeles Passenger Amtrak provides scheduled passenger service along two routes, the Crescent and City of New Orleans. Prior to severe damage from Hurricane Katrina, the Sunset Limited traversed the far south of the state; the route originated in Los Angeles, California and it terminated in Florida. Freight All but two of the United States Class I railroads serve Mississippi (the exceptions are the Union Pacific and Canadian Pacific): Canadian National Railway's Illinois Central Railroad subsidiary provides north–south service. BNSF Railway has a northwest–southeast line across northern Mississippi. Kansas City Southern Railway provides east–west service in the middle of the state and north–south service along the Alabama state line. Norfolk Southern Railway provides service in the extreme north and southeast. CSX has a line along the Gulf Coast. Water Major rivers Mississippi River Big Black River Pascagoula River Pearl River Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Yazoo River Major bodies of water The Ross Barnett Reservoir at sunset Arkabutla Lake 19,550 acres (79.1 km2) of water; constructed and managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Vicksburg District[175] Bay Springs Lake 6,700 acres (27 km2) of water and 133 miles (214 km) of shoreline; constructed and managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Grenada Lake 35,000 acres (140 km2) of water; became operational in 1954; constructed and managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Vicksburg District[176] Ross Barnett Reservoir 33,000 acres (130 km2) of water; named for Ross Barnett, the 52nd Governor of Mississippi; became operational in 1966; constructed and managed by The Pearl River Valley Water Supply District, a state agency; provides water supply for the City of Jackson. Sardis Lake 98,520 acres (398.7 km2) of water; became operational in October 1940; constructed and managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Vicksburg District[177] Enid Lake 44,000 acres (180 km2) of water; constructed and managed by the U.S. Army Education See also: List of colleges and universities in Mississippi and Education in Mississippi Lee County Training School, 1936 Until the Civil War era, Mississippi had a small number of schools and no educational institutions for African Americans. The first school for black students was not established until 1862. During Reconstruction in 1871, black and white Republicans drafted a constitution that was the first to provide for a system of free public education in the state. The state's dependence on agriculture and resistance to taxation limited the funds it had available to spend on any schools. In the early 20th century, there were still few schools in rural areas, particularly for black children. With seed money from the Julius Rosenwald Fund, many rural black communities across Mississippi raised matching funds and contributed public funds to build new schools for their children. Essentially, many black adults taxed themselves twice and made significant sacrifices to raise money for the education of children in their communities, in many cases donating land or labor to build such schools.[178] Blacks and whites attended separate, segregated public schools in Mississippi until the late 1960s, although such segregation had been declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in its 1954 ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. In the majority-black Mississippi Delta counties, white parents worked through White Citizens' Councils to set up private segregation academies, where they enrolled their children. Often funding declined for the public schools.[179] But in the state as a whole, only a small minority of white children were withdrawn from public schools. State officials believed they needed to maintain public education to attract new businesses. Many black parents complained that they had little representation in school administration, and that many of their former administrators and teachers had been pushed out. They have had to work to have their interests and children represented.[179] In the late 1980s, Mississippi's 954 public schools enrolled about 369,500 elementary and 132,500 secondary students. Some 45,700 students attended private schools. In the 21st century, 91% of white children and most of the black children in the state attend public schools.[180] In 2008, Mississippi was ranked last among the fifty states in academic achievement by the American Legislative Exchange Council's Report Card on Education,[181] with the lowest average ACT scores and sixth-lowest spending per pupil in the nation. In contrast, Mississippi had the 17th-highest average SAT scores in the nation. As an explanation, the Report noted that 92% of Mississippi high school graduates took the ACT, but only 3% of graduates took the SAT, apparently a self-selection of higher achievers. This breakdown compares to the national average of high school graduates taking the ACT and SAT, of 43% and 45%, respectively.[181] Generally prohibited in the West at large, school corporal punishment is not unusual in Mississippi, with 31,236 public school students[c] paddled at least one time circa 2016.[182] A greater percentage of students were paddled in Mississippi than in any other state, according to government data for the 2011–2012 school year.[182] In 2007, Mississippi students scored the lowest of any state on the National Assessments of Educational Progress in both math and science.[183] Jackson, the state's capital city, is the site of the state residential school for deaf and hard of hearing students. The Mississippi School for the Deaf was established by the state legislature in 1854 before the civil war. Culture "Culture of Mississippi" redirects here. Not to be confused with Mississippian culture. The Mississippi State Capitol was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2016. While Mississippi has been especially known for its music and literature, it has embraced other forms of art. Its strong religious traditions have inspired striking works by outsider artists who have been shown nationally.[citation needed] Jackson established the USA International Ballet Competition, which is held every four years. This ballet competition attracts the most talented young dancers from around the world.[184] The Magnolia Independent Film Festival, still held annually in Starkville, is the first and oldest in the state. George Ohr, known as the "Mad Potter of Biloxi" and the father of abstract expressionism in pottery, lived and worked in Biloxi, MS. Music Main article: Music of Mississippi Musicians of the state's Delta region were historically significant to the development of the blues. Although by the end of the 19th century, two-thirds of the farm owners were black, continued low prices for cotton and national financial pressures resulted in most of them losing their land. More problems built up with the boll weevil infestation, when thousands of agricultural jobs were lost. Jimmie Rodgers, a native of Meridian and guitarist/singer/songwriter known as the "Father of Country Music", played a significant role in the development of the blues. He and Chester Arthur Burnett were friends and admirers of each other's music. Their friendship and respect is an important example of Mississippi's musical legacy. While the state has had a reputation for being racist, Mississippi musicians created new forms by combining and creating variations on musical traditions from African American traditions, and the musical traditions of white Southerners strongly shaped by Scots-Irish and other styles. The state is creating a Mississippi Blues Trail, with dedicated markers explaining historic sites significant to the history of blues music, such as Clarksdale's Riverside Hotel, where Bessie Smith died after her auto accident on Highway 61. The Riverside Hotel is just one of many historical blues sites in Clarksdale. The Delta Blues Museum there is visited by tourists from all over the world. Close by is "Ground Zero", a contemporary blues club and restaurant co-owned by actor Morgan Freeman. Elvis Presley, who created a sensation in the 1950s as a crossover artist and contributed to rock 'n' roll, was a native of Tupelo. From opera star Leontyne Price to the alternative rock band 3 Doors Down, to gulf and western singer Jimmy Buffett, modern rock/jazz/world music guitarist-producer Clifton Hyde, to rappers David Banner, Big K.R.I.T. and Afroman, Mississippi musicians have been significant in all genres.

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